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Digital Media Technology : Real World Applications. June Bicknese. Table of contents. 1. Digital media technology in media production 2. Overview of digital technology and a media server 3. A case study on a production company

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table of contents
Table of contents

1. Digital media technology in media production

2. Overview of digital technology and a media server

3. A case study on a production company

- digital technologies applied to kiosk system architecture

digital technology media production
Digital Technology + Media Production

1. Traditional media production and its shortcomings

- Inconvenience of an analog and linear videotape

- Continuous demand for expanding video tape storage space

- Retrieval of a videotape from a tape library

2. Advantage of using digital techniques

- Digital tapes are non-linear.

- For storing a digital video, various compression algorithms are used.

- Retrieval is easy, if used with a server.

3. Current status of migrating from analog to digital

- Commercial playback loops

- Analog/digital editing system such as Avid

video server technology
Video Server Technology
  • Processing
  • • Editing
  • • Compressing & Encoding

Analog

Digital

  • Storage
  • • Archive
  • • Retrieval

Analog

Digital

Output

Input

Media Server

Network

getting an input
Getting an input
  • Analog input

1) Analog structure:Luminance(Brightness) + Chrominance(Color)

=> Frame like a picture

=> Series frames as moving images

=> A VHS tape

2) Digitizing a VHS video

=> Import the analog tape into a digitizing software

=> Digitizing software makes the analog input into the digital format

=> Transfer the digitized data into an editor

  • Digital input: directly transferred into an editor

Frame

0111011101101110100101010001110011……

=>

Frame

< Streams of bits >

: instructions to recreate an analog video

video processing
Video Processing
  • Editing

- Software-specific

- Popular software: Avid Xpress, Avid Composer, Windows Media Encoder, Quicktime Pro

  • Compressing

- The method that makes the digital media small enough to fit through the network

video compression
Video Compression
  • Why do we need compression?
    • Successive video images have redundant and repeated images. So, compression makes the repeated images be encapsulated in such a way that nearly every piece of redundant content should be expressed once.
    • Since there are some limitations that human can perceive in visual and auditory systems, digital compression can take advantage of this fact.
two types of compression method
Two types of compression method

(1) Lossless compression:

Data can be compressed and decompressed without losing any of the original data so that the decompressed data matches the original data exactly.

(2) Lossy compression:

Data is lost during the compression process and cannot be recovered during the decompression. The amount of how much data is lost is depending on what kind of compression scheme is applied to the data.

Ex) streaming media

processing encoding
Processing- Encoding
  • Encoding

- The way to put the digital media in the correct format so that the media can be downloaded or streamed via network

storage
Storage
  • What is the ideal disk storage?
    • Reliable
    • Available
    • Scalable
    • Fault tolerant
raid popularity
RAID Popularity
  • Disk storage: capacity , cost
  • Fault tolerance: multiple disk drives appear as a single storage system. If one of them fails, other remaining drives can continue to operate without compromise.
  • Easy replacement: The failed drive can be replaced without seriously degrading ongoing operations.
common levels of raid
Common Levels of RAID
  • RAID 1: Data mirroring

Disk

Mirroring

Disk 0

0011

0102

0032

0011

0102

0032

Disk 1

0011

0102

0032

common levels of raid1
Common Levels of RAID
  • RAID 3: Striped array + Parity

Byte

Striping

+

Parity

Drive

Disk 0

2

3

0

Disk 1

1

2

1

2113

3210

0123

Disk 2

1

1

2

Disk 3

3

0

3

Parity

P3

P2

P1

common levels of raid2
Common Levels of RAID
  • RAID 5: Striped array + Distributed parity

Block

Striping

+

Rotating

Parity

Disk 0

2110

P3

0123

Disk 1

P5

3200

3210

0110

3200

2113

3210

0123

Disk 2

2102

0110

2113

Disk 3

3000

P4

P1

Disk 4

1110

3200

P2

digital archiving
Digital Archiving
  • Problem of current analog tape library

: continuous tape expansion -> more space needed

: constant management by tracking all the videos

: time-wasting retrieval of a video clip

  • Digital media archive

: effective compression -> store videos in smaller storage space

: frequently used data can be stored at fast-accessible storage

seldom-used data can be at less expensive storage

: disk storage and backup -> multiple copies available

: proper network setup -> retrieve data fast

playing a video over internet
Playing a video over Internet
  • Web server vs. Video server
  • Retrieving a video with a metafile
  • Streaming vs. Downloading
  • Playing a video on a client browser
web server vs video server
Web server vs. Video server
  • Using a web server only

: If you need small amount of video or audio clips to be played over the network, your web server doesn’t need to have a separate video server. Your web server can accommodate the basic functions of a video server.

  • Combining a web server and a video server

: If we are considering media production and distribution of the output over the network, we definitely need a video server that has higher quality digital services than the web server.

retrieving a video with a metafile
Retrieving a video with a metafile
  • Windows Media Metafile

(1) contains the location of the media file

(2) references the media file for playing its video over the network

  • Why do we need a metafile?

(1) Guide a browser what to do with the requested video link

: metafile will properly link to the media file and the video will be played accordingly.

(2) Instructs Windows Media Player to go the location and play the media file accordingly.

(3) Great way to combine a web server and a video server

retrieving a video with a metafile1
Retrieving a video with a metafile
  • Creating a Windows Media Metafile

<ASX version = 3.0>

<ENTRY>

<Ref href = “mms://MediaServer/MyVideo.wmv” />

</ENTRY>

</ASX>

(a) ASX defines the enclosed script as being part of a Windows media

metafile.

(b) ENTRY specifies the digital media

(c) Ref href specifies the URL of the media.

(d) MMS is the Windows Media Streaming protocol.

retrieving a video with a metafile2
Retrieving a video with a metafile
  • The name convention: The name of a metafile corresponds to its media file.

Ex) Media file: MyVideo.wmv, Metafile: MyVideo.wvx

  • Adding the metafile on a web page

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>Easiest way to play a media on a web</TITLE>

</HEAD>

<BODY>

<A HREF= http://WebServer/MyVideo.wvx >My video</A>

</BODY>

</HTML>

streaming vs downloading
Streaming vs. Downloading
  • Downloading: copying a file over a network.

(1) Time wait for an entire file to be transmitted

(2) Memory space to store the downloaded file.

Media file

=>

........

=>

Server

Client

Original media file

The media file is divided into multiple packets to be delivered over network

Packets of the media file are delivered to its destination

streaming vs downloading1
Streaming vs. Downloading
  • Streaming: delivering a file over a network and playing the file instantly.

(1) As soon as enough data are buffered, the video starts to play.

(2) After playing, the file is not stored in memory.

So, no extra memory space is necessary.

Media file

........

Server

Client

=

=>

=>

The media file is compressed and encoded into a certain bit rate. It is stored at a server.

Upon the request of the media file, the file is streamed by sending data bit rate-by-bit rate.

Original media file

streaming vs downloading2
Streaming vs. Downloading
  • Intelligent streaming

: It dynamically adjusts the bit rate of streaming video as the network bandwidth changes. It is beneficial for a video to be streamed via networks with different bandwidth over the Internet. However, the quality of the video may be downgraded.

Server

Client

Media file

........

Server

Client

Original media file

Server

Client

Encode the media file with different bit rates

Send the encoded file based on the network bandwidth

streaming vs downloading3
Streaming vs. Downloading
  • Advantage of streaming over downloading

 Real-time playback

 Significantly reduced waiting time

 Only small portion of memory space for buffering

 Cancellation of playback at any time

 Same control options such as play, stop, pause, fast-forward, and rewind.

  • Disadvantage of streaming over downloading

 Limitation of continuous playback for higher bandwidth than the bit rate

 Possibility of unpredictable long buffering time -> discontinuous playback

 In case of intelligent streaming, the video quality is not as good as its original file.

playing a video on a client browser
Playing a video on a client browser
  • A media player on a client side decompresses the transmitted data and converts the digital instructions into analog video or audio form.
  • Different ways to use a media player

 A link from a web page to a Media Player outside the browser

- Audio or video will be played outside the browser.

- This scheme enables the end user to continue to surf with the browser while listening/watching the streaming clip.

0111011101101110……

=>

Frame

1101110001110100……

< Streams of bits >

< Analog video >

playing a video on a client browser1
Playing a video on a client browser
  • Different ways to use a media player (continued)

 embedding a media player in a web page using OBJECT tags

- This method enables you to integrate the design of the player with that of your page.

- You can also customize the playback control buttons.

  • In order to embed the player, add an OBJECT element for the Windows Media ActiveX control like the following example:

<BODY>

<OBJECT ID = “Player” width =“250” height=“250”

CLASSID = “CLSID:6BF52A52-394A-11d3-B153-00C04F79F116” >

</OBJECT>

</BODY>

(More details are in the article “Adding Windows Media to Web Pages” in msdn)

Windows Media Player 7.0 Class ID

playing a video on a client browser2
Playing a video on a client browser

Widows Media Player

Embedded Media Player

Media Player’s original functions

Embedded and controlled functions

network architecture for digital media
Network architecture for digital media
  • Network requirements for media delivery
    • The network should be able to deliver multi-media in a time-sensitive manner.
  • Packet switching vs. Circuit switching
    • In packet switching, although data can tolerate delays in delivery, audio and video cannot tolerate time delays.

=> fast packet switching allows control parameters that specify the importance of in-time delivery in a network header.

=> Multimedia protocols such as RTP or RTSP

    • In circuit switching, once virtual circuit is set up, it is remained until the end of usage and the virtual circuit guarantees fast delivery.
  • Ethernet and ATM are a good match
    • Ethernet is used inside the building for data traffic among personal workstation or desktop
    • ATM is used for backbone network.
    • Most of all, Ethernet and ATM are good setup for both of the Internet and multimedia that have to share the links.
case study of a media production company
Case study of a media production company
  • Current status of digital media usage
    • In production area, digital media technology has been used mostly for video editing and commercial playback. A video server is not used for the production.
    • The closest of using digital technology is the kiosk systems. Kiosk systems are using essential digital media technology. So, kiosk system can be a good example of the current applications for digital technology.
overview of kiosk systems
Overview of Kiosk systems
  • Kiosks are located at the First Union Center. They are used to help the sports fans and audiences get information about the facilities and events. Kiosk touch screens are especially popular during a sports game intermission. During the intermission, people can see the major highlights that just happened during the game.

Main Concourse

Luxury Suites

Lexus Club

the major applications of a kiosk
The major applications of a kiosk
  • The overall interface design is done in Macromedia Flash movie

MS

SQL

Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Photoshop

the major applications of a kiosk1
The major applications of a kiosk
  • SMS (Systems Management Server) – check the status of all the kiosk systems and allows us to remotely trouble-shoot all the kiosk systems.
  • Advantage: Rebooting each kiosk

can be done remotely at one

workstation rather than doing

each computer

at its location.

  • Disadvantage: For remote

trouble-shooting, the only

function is to turn on and

off a kiosk.

Luxury

Suites

S

M

S

Main Concourse

Lexus Club

the major applications of a kiosk2
The major applications of a kiosk
  • symantec pcAnywhere – remotely access the server and update the contents of the server, and to transfer files to the server.
  • Advantage: we can remotely access the server machines rather than we have to physically go to each server and update contents.
  • Disadvantage: Once a user accesses the server with the authorized user name and password, it lets a user allow any changes the user can make in the server.

First Union Spectrum

First Union Center

Web Server

pc

Anywhere

Video Server

video server video server architecture
Video Server-Video Server Architecture
  • Main functions of the media server: storage of videos and streaming

Compressed digital video input

 Stores the input in order in primary disk array.

 Retrieve the requested video file in real time.

 Stream the video

 Transmit the video file

Windows Media Player requests for the media file with the metafile.

Streaming

Downloading

< Windows Media Server >

video server getting a new input
Video Server-Getting a new input
  • Video inputs: game highlights or concert footage

30 seconds to 1 minute 30 seconds long

  • Process of getting a new video file

 Shoot videos with the analog camera

 Transfer the videos as composite or component inputs into

Avid Xpress

 A component input separates analog video signal into three different elements of red, green, and blue(RGB) and uses three different cables, so that they produce better image quality.

 A composite input combines all of three elements and use one cable so that it is easier to import the input but has less image quality.

video server getting a new input1
Video Server-Getting a new input

 Digitize the analog inputs

 Compress the video with 2-to-1 compression algorithm and save it as motion-JPEG

0111011101101110100101010001110011……

=>

Frame

< Streams of bits >

Higher compression

: Less space

More artifacts

2 to 1

3 to 1

……..

20 to 1

Lower compression

: More space

Better looking

<Avid Xpress Compression Algorithm>

video server getting a new input2
Video Server-Getting a new input

• Motion JPEG

‣ JPEG is a standard for compressing and storing digital images. Motion-JPEG extends this standard by supporting videos.

‣ In motion-JPEG, each frame in the video is stored with the JPEG format, and compresses each video field separately, returning the resulting JPEG bit streams consecutively in a single frame.

Frame 1

JPEG 1

01110111011011

Frame 3

Frame 2

Frame 2

0111011101101110

1001010100010100

1010100011

JPEG 2

Frame 1

10100101010001

Frame 3

JPEG 3

<Analog

Moving Images>

01001010100011

<Compressed into a series of JPEGs>

<Motion-JPEG>

video server getting a new input3
Video Server-Getting a new input

• Avid Xpress for digitizing and compressing

Frame 1

JPEG 1

01110111011011

Frame 3

Frame 2

Frame 2

JPEG 2

Transfer into Avid Xpress

Frame 1

10100101010001

Frame 3

JPEG 3

<Analog

Moving Images>

01001010100011

(1) Digitizing

(2) Compression into a series of JPEGs

with 2-to-1 compression

011101110110111010010

101000101001010100011

<Motion-JPEG>

video server getting a new input4
Video Server-Getting a new input

 The motion-JPEC file is changed into .omfi file. The file is exported from Avid Xpress and imported into Windows Media Cleaner.

• OMFI file as a universal compressed file format

‣ Motion-JPEG has no universal decoding algorithm standard. This means that a motion-JPEG file may produce different results on different applications. In video imaging, transporting a compressed video in its native compression format between different applications may require common denominator.

‣ For this reason, omfi is used as the interchange of digital media data between different platforms or applications. OMFI means Open Media Framework Interchange, a registered trademark of Avid Technology, Inc. It is a standard format of the interchange of digital media data among heterogeneous platforms.

video server getting a new input5
Video Server-Getting a new input

 In the Windows Media Cleaner, encode it as a Windows Media file

• Windows Media Cleaner for encoding

0111011101101110100101010001010010101000110110111010010101000101101110100101010001011011101001010100011000101101110100101010....

Encoding for media streaming

<OMFI File>

<Windows Media File>

video server getting a new input6
Video Server-Getting a new input

 Save the digital video clip as a media file(.wmv) and create its metafile(.wvx) in a notepad.

<ASX version = “3.0”>

<Entry>

<Ref Href = “Path” />

</Entry>

</ASX>

 Transfer the metafile(.wvx) into the web server and media file(.wmv) into the media server

Metafile

Video

Editing

Station

Web Server

Video Server

Media file

video server uploading video during game
Video Server-uploading video during game
  • During the game, if there is a memorable moments, the highlight is uploaded into the video server so that audience can see it again during the intermission. This uploading is almost like real-time updating, but it takes about 5 minutes after the actual event.

 All games are recorded into Avid Xpress.

 Once there is a good highlight, it is edited and exported into the Windows Media Cleaner.

 In the Cleaner, encode it as a Windows Media file

 Save it as a Windows Media file and Windows object file.

 Transfer the wvx and wmv files into the two different server machines.

video server storage
Video Server- Storage
  • RAID level 5 – RAID 5 allows three or more drives to stripe the data across drives. Even two drives can function well.
  • Video Naming in the Web and Video Servers

 Video name: team name / show name + purpose + number in order

For example, the first Flyers history video is named as flyhis01.wvx in database and flyhis01.wmv in the video server.

 There are subvideos. These are smaller video files than video files. It is used when somebody comments on a particular game or play that happened. It is played with the main video clip. The processes of uploading and retrieving a subvideo file are same as the video ones.

video server storage1
Video Server- Storage

Video

Subvideo

VideoID (PK)

Date

Description

Team

EventID

History

Highlights

Profile

Community

Filename

PlayerID

SubVideoID (PK)

VideoID (FK)

Description

Filename

<Video and Subvideo tables

at the database in the web server>

video server storage2
Video Server- Storage

<Video>

VideoID

Date

Description

Team

……

Filename

……

1005

5/19/1974

1st Stanley Cup

Flyers

……

flyhis05

……

<Subvideo>

SubVideoID

VideoID

Description

Filename

2004

1005

Clarke

flyper04

2005

1005

MacLeish

flyper05

2006

1005

Parent

flyper06

<An example of Video and Subvideo tables

at the database in the web server>

video server digital archive
Video Server- Digital Archive
  • Tape backup is done every night
  • At the end of the season, most of the used videos are removed
video retrieval
Video Retrieval
  • Process of retrieving a video clip from the Windows Media Server

 A user clicks on the video icon

A video is selected by a user.

video retrieval1
Video Retrieval

Request the metafile with video id

Action script

Flash

at kiosk

Video

(Subvideo)

table in the

Web Server

ASP

as

Middleware

 Get the requested metafile

Embedded

Media

Player

 Reference the video using its metafile

Video Server

 Play the video by streaming

<Process of retrieving a video>

video retrieval2
Video Retrieval
  • Metafile: Windows Media Protocol + Windows Media Server + video folder + media file.
  • A single file retrieval

<ASX version = “3.0”>

<Entry><ref href = mms://ctc_wms/video/sixgre03.wmv /> </Entry>

</ASX>

  • Multiple file retrieval

<ASX version = “3.0”>

<Entry> <ref href = mms://ctc_wms/video/flyhis05.wmv /> </Entry>

<Entry> <ref href = mms://ctc_wms/video/flyper04.wmv /> </Entry>

<Entry> <ref href = mms://ctc_wms/video/flyper05.wmv /> </Entry>

<Entry> <ref href = mms://ctc_wms/video/flyper06.wmv /> </Entry>

</ASX>

video retrieval3
Video Retrieval

The metafile has been sent to Windows Media Server. It opens and references the actual media file in the video server.

As soon as the enough data is arriving, the embedded Windows Media Player decompresses the digital file, transforms it into analog format, and plays it by streaming.

video retrieval4
Video Retrieval
  • If there are multiple requests from multiple clients, the server do multi-streaming
  • The server usually can multi-stream

videos more than 200 streams,

considering the total of around 150

kiosks.

  • No Intelligent streaming

a. It provides a poor quality video

b. Streaming uses the dedicated

network between two buildings. So,

the bandwidth can be considered

as a constant.

<Video Server>

kiosk

flyhis05.wmv

flyper04.wmv

flyper05.wmv

kiosk

flyper06.wmv

kiosk

sixgre03.wmv

Multiple Streaming

how to streaming video
How-to: streaming video
  • Recommended web site:

For doing simple media streaming over the Internet, check out the web site, http://catalyst.washington.edu/catalyst/how-to/digitalvideo

There are specific instructions depending on which application you are using. RealMedia, QuickTime, and Media Cleaner Pro.

  • For Windows Media Encoder, check out msdn library.
network architecture for video1
Network Architecture for video
  • RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol)

: RTSP is an application-level protocol for control over the real-time data delivery. It is associated with the port 554. Sources of data can be audio, video, or live data feeds. This protocol is designed to cope with bandwidth-demanding and real-time streams.

Video Server

Kiosk Client

Media file

+ RTSP

Windows

Media Player

Frame Relay

Gateway

TCP

TCP

IP

IP

IP

Ethernet

Physical

Ethernet

<RTSP’s Video Delivery Method>

slide56
The End of the Presentation

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