Extreme environments
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 20

Extreme Environments PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 56 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

19. Why are Deserts Cold During the Night?. Hot Deserts. Extreme Environments. 20. What are hot deserts like?  Climate. Hot Deserts. Extreme Environments.

Download Presentation

Extreme Environments

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Extreme environments

19

Why are Deserts Cold During the Night?

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments


Extreme environments1

20

What are hot deserts like?  Climate

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

You may be asked to describe what these graphs show. Refer to: Highest, Lowest, trends, anomalies. Include Data, months, increases/decreases seasons, links between Rain/Temp


Extreme environments2

21

What are Hot Deserts like?  Vegetation

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

For vegetation to survive in desert they must adapt. Challenges: Extreme heat, lack of water/nutrients

  • 1) XerophytesThese plants have made physical adaption's to survive the desert e.g. Cacti. Some of the features are:

  • - Spines – These deter predators and help to break up wind – reducing the amount of transpiration of water moisture

  • Shallow roots – these quickly draw up any surface rainwater.

  • Deep roots – Reach towards deep underground water stores.

  • ‘pleated’ body – The cactus can swell up to take in water

  • Green body – body takes on role of photosynthesis.

  • Small surface area – to reduce transpiration

  • Thick waxy body – the make sure no water is lost


Extreme environments3

22

What are Hot Deserts like?  Vegetation

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

For any vegetation to survive in a desert it must adapt. The main challenge is the heat & lack of water

2a) Ephemerals (plants)

These plants lie dormant for months, or even years in the desert until it rains.

These plants grow & flower very quickly (within a few days) before the water gets evaporated or soaked away.

2b) Ephemerals (seeds)

In deserts there are many seeds waiting to be germinated. When the rains come they will quickly start to grow into plants, taking advantage of the conditions


Extreme environments4

23

What are Hot Deserts like?  Vegetation

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

XerophytesA sketch to show key features of a cactus

Ephemerals Desert after a ‘rain’ event


Extreme environments5

24

What are hot deserts like?  Animals

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Animals need to adapt in order to survive in desert environments.

They have to cope with extreme temperatures, lack of food and lack of water.

To avoid daytime heat, many desert animals are Nocturnal; they burrow beneath the surface or hide in the shade during the day, emerging at night to eat.

Many desert animals do not have to drink at all – they get all of their water from the moisture in food


Extreme environments6

25

What are hot deserts like?  Animals

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

How have camels adapted to life in deserts?

Thick fur & underwool – warmth at night & insulation against sun in day

Fat Stored in humps - energy reserve

Two rows of eyelashes– protects against sand & sun

Concentrated urine to retain as much water as possible

Nostrils can be closed to keep out sand

Broad, flat leathery pads on hooves to spread out weight on sand

Thick leathery patches on knees to protect when resting on hot sand

Long, strong legs – carry heavy loads & body further away from sand


Extreme environments7

26

What are hot deserts like?  Weathering & Erosion

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

  • What is weathering?

  • Weathering is the action of the weather, plants and animals on rocks. The rocks are broken down without being removed.

  • What is Erosion?

  •  Erosion is the wearing away and removal of rock, soil etc by rivers, sea , ice and wind.


Extreme environments8

27

What are hot deserts like?  Weathering & Erosion

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Different Types of weathering:

a) Biological Weathering -The growing roots of plants in a crack within a rock can force the rock apart.

b) Physical /Mechanical Weathering The action of the weather through repeated heating/cooling or freezing/ thawing of water on rocks. E.g. Freeze thaw/ frost Shattering (picture A) or onion skin weathering/Exfoliation (picture B)

A

B

c) Chemical Weathering –Rainwater that is slightly acidic can dissolve rocks. This is most clearly seen on statues


Extreme environments9

28

What are hot deserts like?  Weathering & Erosion

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

In hot Deserts Physical Weatheringoccurs in the form of ‘Freeze thaw’ and/or ‘Onion Skin Weathering’

Water enters a crack on in the rock. When its cold (at night) the water freezes and expands. The water then thaws. This process is repeated. Eventually pieces break off

When rocks are made up of different layers, they can be made of slightly different materials. These materials respond differently when repeatedly heated /cooled. The rocks expands &contracts at different rates. The outer layers then break off.

Freeze-Thaw Weathering

Exfoliation / onion skin weathering


Extreme environments10

29

What are hot deserts like?  Weathering & Erosion

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

b) Chemical Weathering. This includes Salt Crystallisation (water evaporates & leaves behind salt, which expands) and Hydration (water reacts with chemical in the rock)

c) Biological Weathering. This is when plant roots grow into crack in the rock and force the cracks open.

Erosion is the wearing away and removal of material. In deserts erosion is mainly caused by the wind. Although flash flooding can also happen & moves lose material. Both occur as there is little vegetation hold /bind sand.

Deposition is the laying down of material that has already been eroded. Material from wind erosion often deposits is often laid down to form Dunes & flash floods carry material further down the valley & across flood plains


Extreme environments11

30

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features – Zeugen 1

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Formation of Zeugen

 Stage 1

When there are alternating layers of hard & soft rock there can sometimes be weaknesses in the joints. When the temperature changes and dew occurs at night, chemical weathering breaks up the rock and starts to open up the joints


Extreme environments12

31

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features – Zeugen 2

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Formation of Zeugen

 Stage 2

Once the joints are opened up, they are then eroded away further by the wind (abrasion).

This forms ridges and hollows. At this stage the erosion starts to reach into the soft rock


Extreme environments13

32

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features – Zeugen 3

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Formation of Zeugen

 Stage 3

The Zeugen can stand between 3m – 36m high.

Now that abrasion starts to erode the softer rock (which is less resistant), rock pedestals will often form


Extreme environments14

33

What are hot deserts like? Physical Features  Rock Pedestal

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Rock Pedestal–These are sometimes called mushroom rocks as they are often ‘top heavy’. Over time, the wind (which carries particles of sand) wears away the rock. This type of erosion is called abrasion. A rock pedestal erodes more in places than others. This is because softer (less

resistant) rock erodes more quickly than harder (more resistant) rock and because much of the erosion takes place within the first metre of the ground

Example of a Rock Pedestal

Classic mushroom shape at he top

More resistant rock worn away slowly

Less resistant rock worn away quickly

Most erosion within first metre of ground as wind lifts material


Extreme environments15

33

What are hot deserts like? Physical Features  Rock Pedestal

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

You need to be able to draw and label a rock pedestal from memory


Extreme environments16

34

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features – Yardang

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Yardang: Formation

Yardangs often form in alternate vertical bands of hard and soft rocks. The weaker rocks are less resistant to the wind

erosion & erode

more quickly. The

harder rocks are

more resistant and

left as ridges.

Cross section view

Stage 1 – flat surface

Stage 2–Differential erosion due to abrasion

Key

Hard, Resistant Rock

Softer, less resistant rock


Extreme environments17

35

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features – Yardang

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Yardang: Formation

Yardangs are long and thin in appearance. The ridges become more pronounced. Can be up to 15m high

They also often occur parallel to the prevailing (most common) wind direction, this is when most erosion will occur.

Stage 3 – Ridges become more pronounced

Cross section view

Diagram is plan view


Extreme environments18

36

Suspension

Saltation

Traction

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features/transportation – Wind transportation

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

Wind can Transport sand in a variety of ways. The stronger the wind, the more material can be transported.

1) Suspension-Light/finer material is carried/suspended in the air

2) Saltation – This material is ‘bounced’ along the ground

3) Traction –

This material is heavier and is blown/rolled along the ground


Extreme environments19

37

What are hot deserts like?  Physical features/transportation – Wadi

Hot Deserts

Extreme Environments

A Wadi is a steep sided, deep, flat floored (dry) valley in a desert. Usually they do not have any water in them. There may be a few desert plants in the Wadi.

The material in the wadi is often loose. Therefore, when there is a flash flood, lots of material in the wadi is transported (moved) & then deposited (dropped) further down the valley.

Steep Sides

Flat bottom

Loose Material

Some plants


  • Login