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Electricity and MagnetismPowerPoint Presentation

Electricity and Magnetism

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Early Work on Static Electricity

- Leyden Jar
- Static Generator

André-Marie Ampère

- Electromagnetic molecule
- Showed that the direction of current determines attraction of parallel wires

1775-1836, France

Electrical Power

SI unit of power is Watt

W = V * I

W = I2 * R

W = V2/R

W = Watts

V = Volts

I = Amps

R = Ohms

Ohm’s Law

I = current (Amps)

V= difference in potential (Volts)

R= resistance (Ohms)

Georg Simon Ohm

1789-1854, present-day Germany

Faraday Induction Experiment

- induction coil (A&B)
- Galvanometer

Early Electric Motor

Faraday’s electromagnetic rotation experiment (1821)

In answer to William Gladstone as to the practical value of electricity, Faraday replied: One day sir, you may tax it.

Electromagnetic Fields

- Field eliminates problem of action-at-a-distance

The War of the Currents in 1880’s

George Westinghouse

Thomas A. Edison

Promoted DC current

Could be used to charge batteries directly

Early systems could be used in parallel or series

Low efficiency in long distance transmission

Edison’s disinformation campaign

- Promoted AC current
- Difficult to charge batteries without transformer
- Early systems could be used only in series
- Early AC motors not practical
- More efficient transmission over long distances

Willamette Falls and Niagara Falls

- Willamette Falls transmission first long-distance transmission (DC). Knocked out by flood and a quick AC replacement was used (1890).
- Niagara Falls station, international long-distance transmission. Awarded to Westinghouse (1893).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

- Also called:
- Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
- Magnetic resonance tomography

James Clerk Maxwell

- Physicist who worked on thermodynamics, optics, and electromagnetism
- Unification of optics, electricity, and magnetism by Maxwell's equations
- Gauss’s Law for electricity (single electrical charges exist, also Coulomb’s Law)
- Gauss’s Law for magnetism (magnetic monopoles do not exist)
- Faraday’s Law of induction (a varying magnetic field induces an electrical field)
- Ampere’s Law (a varying electrical current –or fields- can create a magnetic field)

1831-1879, Britain

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