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Cells. Chapter 3 Bio 156 Fall 2006. What is the Cell Theory?. All organisms are made of cells. The cell is the smallest unit of life. New cells come from pre-existing cells. What are microscopes? tools used to view cells.

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Cells

Cells

Chapter 3

Bio 156

Fall 2006


What is the cell theory
What is the Cell Theory?

  • All organisms are made of cells.

  • The cell is the smallest unit of life.

  • New cells come from pre-existing cells.


What are microscopes tools used to view cells
What are microscopes?tools used to view cells

  • Compound light microscope: light rays focused by lenses, viewed by the eye, magnifies up to 1000X


Dissecting microscope
Dissecting microscope:

  • For observing surface details of objects, magnifies up to 30X

Penny


Electron microscopes
Electron microscopes

  • For viewing details, magnifies 1,000,000X

TEM

Surface of a cell, cilia


How are cells classified according to their internal organization
How are cells classified? according to their internal organization?

  • What structures do all cells have?

  • Cell or plasma membranes: living phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins


Internal organization of cells cont
Internal organization of cells cont…..

  • Plant cells also have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose

  • Cytoplasm: a semifluid gel inside the cell that contain cell contents


What are eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus plant and animal cells
What are Eukaryotic Cells? Have a “true nucleus”, plant and animal cells

  • What are organelles?"little organ", cellular structures that perform specific functions

  • What does the nucleus do?control center of the cell


What are prokaryotic cells before the nucleus bacteria
What are prokaryotic cells? “before" the nucleus (bacteria)

Bacillus polymyxa

DNA: single circular DNA in a nuceloid region

  • Ribosomes: enzymes that synthesize proteins

  • Cell membrane: regulates transport in/out of the cell

  • Cell wall for strength, may have a capsule or slime layer


How does cell structure reflect cell function
How does cell structure reflect cell function?

  • Simple cuboidal epithelium (400x) is made up of one layer of cube-shaped cells.  These cells frequently make up the tubes of your body.


How does cell structure reflect cell function1
How does cell structure reflect cell function…..

  • Blood Cells

  • Why do you think Red Blood Cells don’t have a nucleus and White Blood Cells do?

  • (hint: think about their functions)


How does cell structure reflect cell function2
How does cell structure reflect cell function…

  • Skeletal muscle (400x) is striated

  • What is the function of these cells?

  • Why do you think these are long cells?

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/skmuscls.jpg


How does cell structure reflectcell function
How does cell structure reflectcell function…

  • Plant Cell Anacharis (Elodea) leaf cells (1000x). 

  • What do you think is the function of these cells? 

  • How is the function dependent on the structure?


How does cell structure reflect cell function3
How does cell structure reflect cell function…

Potato cells with stained leucoplasts (100x). 

  • The leucoplasts (starch storage units) have been stained with gram iodine (stains for starch)


What limits cell size
What limits cell size?

Surface area-to-volume ratio needs to be greater for an exchange of materials

Microvilli: some cells increase surface area by micro-extensions called microvilli

http://distance.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/imagesAP2/digestion/microvilli.jpg


What is a plasma membrane made of how is a cell membrane like a house
What is a plasma membrane made of? (how is a cell membrane like a house?)

  • Phospholipids:a. polar heads (hydrophilic or water soluble) b. nonpolar tails (hydrophobic or not water soluble)

  • Cholesterol: gives strength to the cell membrane

  • Proteins: transport, communication


What is the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane
What is the fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane?

  • How is itfluid? (flows, pliable) phospholipid bilayer

  • How is it a mosaic? proteins partially or wholly embedded


What are channel proteins space where a substance moves across the membrane
What are channel proteins? Space where a substance moves across the membrane

What are carrier proteins?

Combine with a substance and

help it move across the membrane

http://www.aber.ac.uk/gwydd-cym/graffeg/biolgell/cludiant/sianel.gif


What are receptors s pecific shape that allows a molecule to bind to it ex hormone
What are receptors? across the membraneSpecific shape that allows a molecule to bind to it, ex) hormone

What are glycoproteins?For cell to cell identification

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/5_11.jpg


How are membranes selectively permeable allows s ome molecules to pass through and not others
How are membranes selectively permeable across the membrane?Allows some molecules to pass through and not others

  • What is passive transport?

  • Doesn't need energy to happen, goes with concentration gradient

  • What is diffusion? Movement of molecules from high to low concentration

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/problem_sets/membranes/graphics/CHANNEL.GIF


What is osmosis diffusion of water into and out of cells
What is osmosis? across the membraneDiffusion of water into and out of cells

  • What is a solute? usually a solid

  • What is a solvent? usually a liquid

  • Define tonicity: based on concentrations of solutes


What are isotonic solutions? across the membrane

Same concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane

http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/metabolism/growth/images/isotonicanim.gif


What are hypotonic solutions
What are hypotonic solutions? across the membrane

  • Low solutes in solution, water enters the cell, hemolysis

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/metabolism/growth/images/hypotonicanim.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/metabolism/growth/hypotonicanim.html&h=290&w=362&sz=357&tbnid=lOPoZ-_M4ysJ:&tbnh=93&tbnw=117&hl=en&start=2&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dosmosis%2Banimation%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D


What are hypertonic solutions
What are hypertonic solutions? across the membrane

  • High solutes in solution, causes water to leave the cell (water follows salt), crenation

http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/metabolism/growth/images/hypertonicanim.gif


What is turgor pressure p lant cells swell in response to a hypotonic solution
What is turgor pressure? across the membranePlant cells swell in response to a hypotonic solution

Put some wilted celery in a glass of cool water. If it has not wilted too much, it will become stiff again. This is because of turgor pressure when the plant cell vacuoles become filled with water, push against the cell walls and become firm.


What is facilitated transport carrier proteins assist movement of specific molecules
What is facilitated transport? across the membraneCarrier proteins assist movement of specific molecules


What is a ctive transport requires a tp to move molecules against their concentration gradient
What is across the membraneactive transport?Requires ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient

  • What is the Na-K pump?

    • Concentrates more Na+ outside, K+ inside cell membranes

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/ATPpumA.gif


What is exocytosis or endocytosis move materials outside or inside the cell
What is Exocytosis or Endocytosis? across the membraneMove materials outside or inside the cell

http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/GIFS/exocyt.gif


What is phagocytosis cell eating white blood cells
What is Phagocytosis? across the membrane “Cell eating”, white blood cells

http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/leukocyto.gif


What is pinocytosis cell drinking root cells get water
What is across the membranePinocytosis?“Cell drinking”, root cells get water

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/images/pinocyt.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/pinocyt.html&h=362&w=363&sz=55&tbnid=0qGkaPabQ3MJ:&tbnh=116&tbnw=117&hl=en&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpinocytosis%2Banimation%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG


What is receptor-mediated endocytosis? across the membraneCoated proteins attract specific molecules to the cell surface

http://srs.dl.ac.uk/VUV/home-page/hot-topics/graphics/uffig1.gif


Construction of the cell membrane
Construction of the Cell Membrane across the membrane

  • This is an interactive activity

  • Construction of the Cell Membrane

  • In this activity you will learn about the cell membrane structure by assembling it. Interactive exercise from Wisc-Online.

http://www.wisc-online.com/lrnobj/ap1/AP1101/index.html


How do internal structures carry out specific functions
How do internal structures carry out specific functions? across the membrane

  • What are the structures of the nucleus?

    • Nuclear membrane: has nuclear pore spaces

    • Nucleolus: forms RNA and ribosomes

    • Chromatin: all of the DNA molecules


What do ribosomes do assemble proteins
What do ribosomes do? across the membrane Assemble proteins


What does endoplasmic reticulum er do
What does endoplasmic reticulum (ER) do? across the membrane

  • Makes and transports large molecules

  • Smooth ER: enzymes make lipids, steroids

  • Rough ER with ribosomes (RNA): have ribosomes for making protein


What does the golgi apparatus look like stacks of sacules like pancakes
What does the Golgi apparatus look like? across the membrane Stacks of sacules (like pancakes)

  • What is its function?

    • Stores and distributes products from ER

    • Processes, packages and secretes

    • Breaks off pieces as vesicles (small sac)


What are vacuoles large membranous sacs for transport and storage
What are Vacuoles? across the membrane Large membranous sacs for transport and storage

  • What do lysosomes do?

  • Digestive enzymes in vesicles

  • What are Peroxisomes?

  • Vesicles with enzymes that destroy toxins


What are mitochondria s ite for aerobic respiration burns food
What are mitochondria? across the membrane Site for aerobic respiration, "burns food"

  • Produces ATP “cell's powerhouse”

  • Cristae: inner membrane increases surface area for metabolism

  • Matrix: inner fluid-filled space


What are chloroplasts organelles only found in plant cells
What are chloroplasts? across the membraneOrganelles only found in plant cells

  • Photosynthesis: use solar energy to make carbohydrates

  • Thylakoids: interconnected flattened sacs

  • Grana: stacks of thylakoids (granny's pancakes)

  • Stroma: syrupy fluid filled space (syrup)


What provides cells with structure for support and movement
What provides cells with structure for support and movement? across the membrane

  • Cytoskeleton? interconnected microtubules and microfilaments

    • Cilia: small whips, move cell, or fluids across a surface

    • Flagella: larger whip, moves cell like an oar on a boat


Centrioles in animal cells for spindle fibers during mitosis pull chromosomes apart
Centrioles across the membranein animal cells for spindle fibers during mitosis, pull chromosomes apart


How do cells use and transform matter and energy
How do cells use and transform matter and energy? across the membrane

  • What are metabolic pathways? When one chemical reaction leads to another ex) A + B -> C + D

  • What are reactants? participate in a reaction, ex) A + B -> (enzyme)

  • What are products? result from a reaction, ex) C + D


What is anabolism
What is Anabolism? across the membrane

Building up of larger molecules, takes energy (endergonic)

What is Catabolism?

Breaking down into smaller molecules, gives up energy (exergonic)


What is atp a universal packet of energy used in cells
What is ATP? across the membrane A universal packet of energy used in cells

  • ATP = adenosine triphosphate (Adenine-ribose-P-P-P)

  • Exergonic:the energy currency of the cell

    • ATP -> ADP + P + energy

  • Endergonic:

    • ADP + P + energy -> ATP


What is cellular respiration c hemical reactions that produce atp in cells
What is cellular respiration? across the membrane Chemical reactions that produce ATP in cells

  • What is glycolysis? breaks down glucose (C6) -> 2 pyruvate (C3) + 2 ATP

  • Where does it take place? in the cytoplasm, in all cells, no O2 needed

  • How does it get started? it needs 2 P from 2 ATP activate glucose


What is aerobic respiration respiration with oxygen
What is aerobic respiration? across the membraneRespiration with oxygen

  • Where does it take place? Inside the mitochondria: yields 36-38 ATP

  • What does the Krebs cycle do?1) pyruvate is broken down to O2 + acetyl group (C2) -> 2 CO2 + 2 ATP 2) NAD+ and FAD + H2 -> NADH and FADH2 -> electron transport system


What does the electron transport system do
What does the across the membraneelectron transport system do?

  • Coenzyme carriers move electrons to make 32-34 ATP


What is fermentation a lternative pathway of energy when no oxygen is present
What is fermentation? across the membrane Alternative pathway of energy when no oxygen is present

  • Glycolysis first

  • Alcoholic fermentation:

    • Glucose is broken down to pyruvate, then to Alcohol + CO2 + 2 ATP

  • Used for: brewing, baking


What is lactic acid fermentation
What is lactic acid fermentation? across the membrane

  • Glucose -> pyruvate –> lactate + 2 ATP

  • Used in making yogurt,

    sour cream, cheese,

    sauerkraut

  • In O2 starved muscles,

    oxygen debt:

    O2 + lactic acid to

    pyruvate


Need more help
Need more help? across the membrane

  • For extra learning practice see links on Bb under CH 3

  • Read your test clues each night before you go to bed to help remember them

  • For extra credit fill out review sheet (1 pt) and write 15 multiple choice questions and answer them (1 pt)


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