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Implementing HRD Programs. Chapter 6 Human Resource Development. On-the-job Methods. Advantages No special space or equipment Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing Earn/produce while learning Relevant reinforcements Learning environment same as working environment.

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Implementing hrd programs

Implementing HRD Programs

Chapter 6

Human Resource Development


On the job methods
On-the-job Methods

  • Advantages

    • No special space or equipment

    • Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing

    • Earn/produce while learning

    • Relevant reinforcements

    • Learning environment same as working environment


On the job methods1
On-the-job Methods

  • Disadvantages

    • Tie up expensive equipment

    • Waste may be high

    • Customer problems

    • “Trainer” may not be skilled

    • Pressure of job demands


On the job methods2
On-the-job Methods

  • Job instruction training

  • Job rotation

  • Coaching

  • Mentoring

  • Internship

  • Apprenticeship





Off the job methods
Off-the-job Methods

  • Advantages

    • Variety of training techniques

    • Learning climate

    • Economy – number of trainees

    • Don’t tie up expensive equipment/waste

  • Disadvantages

    • Increased costs – equipment/space

    • Transfer issues


Lecture
Lecture

Advantages

  • Economical – large amounts of information to large numbers of trainees

  • Can be organized/structured/time efficient

    Criticisms

  • One-way flow

  • Best for cognitive principles, facts rather than skills

  • Stress on verbal and symbolic understanding

  • Ignores individual differences


Discussion
Discussion

  • Advantages

    • Two-way communication allows feedback, clarification, sharing views

  • Limitations

    • Needs skilled discussion leader

    • Time

    • Trainees need common reference point

    • Size of group


Audiovisual methods
Audiovisual Methods

  • Static and dynamic media. telecommunication

  • Portray dynamic and complex events

    • Illustration of principles

    • Stop action, slow motion

    • Exposure to events not easily found live

    • Organization wide distribution


Case study
Case Study

  • Illustrations of concepts to be learned, communication skills, analytical skills, integrate information

  • Critics-lack of realistic complexity, caught up in details, groupthink, limits teaching role of trainer


Business games and simulations
Business Games and Simulations

  • Real life, active, assume roles, make decisions that have impact on game/simulation, can be motivating/involving

  • May lack complexity/realism, difficulty in model reflecting all aspects of reality


Role playing
Role Playing

  • Act out situation and specific events, develop insights in own and other’s behaviors, develop interpersonal relationship, empathy

  • Problems with over dramatization, intimidation, realism, transfer


In basket technique
In-Basket Technique

  • Simulation of management decision-making

  • In-basket includes various memos, messages, etc.

  • Evaluation based on prioritizing, organizing, types of responses


Behavior modeling
Behavior Modeling

  • Observe complex behavior, discuss, practice through role playing and feedback

  • Best if can identify with role models

  • Research support


Things to consider for implementing behavior modeling part 1 of 2
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling– Part 1 of 2

•  Carefully select the trainer/program administrator who will set up and conduct the sessions. He or she must be skilled and experienced with this technique.

• Consider if this technique will meet your needs within constraints of time and money.

•  Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of training and involve the potential trainees and their bosses in this process.

•  Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a module around each small behavior.

• Do not emphasize more than seven learning points during any one training module.

• Models used to demonstrate the correct way of behaving/handling a certain situation should have sufficient status to be credible yet easy for the trainees to identify with.

• Using a videotape of a model performing the correct behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will see a positive example and may reduce costs since it is reusable.


Things to consider for implementing behavior modeling part 2 of 2
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling– Part 2 of 2

• Before trainees actually practice the desired behavior, have them verbalize the behavioral cues demonstrated and then have them visualize their performance.

•  A supportive climate that encourages experimentation must be established for the practice sessions. Emphasis on positive reinforcement rather than criticism increases self-confidence and learning.

•  After each session, some behavior modeling experts provide a wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning points and critical steps. This acts as a security blanket.

•  Conduct a review session after several modules have been completed in order to reinforce the learning points and to demonstrate the progress that has been attained.

•  Manage the consequences of attempting the newly trained behaviors in the actual job situation.







Pi example
PI Example Approaches

  • 1. Metals expand when heated. Copper is a metal and will _____when heated.

  • 2. When heated iron will ______less than copper.

  • 3. Thus different metals will expand by ________ when heated.

  • 4. The increase in the length is proportional to the ________in temperature.

  • 5. A copper bar expands by 0.2 cm when the temperature rises by 100 degrees C. It will expand by _____ if the temperature is increased by 200 degrees C.


Programmed instruction for pi part 1 of 4
Programmed instruction for PI. Approaches - Part 1 of 4


Programmed instruction for pi part 2 of 4
Programmed instruction for PI. Approaches - Part 2 of 4


Programmed instruction for pi part 3 of 4
Programmed instruction for PI. Approaches - Part 3 of 4


Programmed instruction for pi part 4 of 4
Programmed instruction for PI. Approaches - Part 4 of 4


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