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Implementing HRD Programs. Chapter 6 Human Resource Development. On-the-job Methods. Advantages No special space or equipment Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing Earn/produce while learning Relevant reinforcements Learning environment same as working environment.

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implementing hrd programs

Implementing HRD Programs

Chapter 6

Human Resource Development

on the job methods
On-the-job Methods
  • Advantages
    • No special space or equipment
    • Minimize transfer problems/practice what will be doing
    • Earn/produce while learning
    • Relevant reinforcements
    • Learning environment same as working environment
on the job methods1
On-the-job Methods
  • Disadvantages
    • Tie up expensive equipment
    • Waste may be high
    • Customer problems
    • “Trainer” may not be skilled
    • Pressure of job demands
on the job methods2
On-the-job Methods
  • Job instruction training
  • Job rotation
  • Coaching
  • Mentoring
  • Internship
  • Apprenticeship
off the job methods
Off-the-job Methods
  • Advantages
    • Variety of training techniques
    • Learning climate
    • Economy – number of trainees
    • Don’t tie up expensive equipment/waste
  • Disadvantages
    • Increased costs – equipment/space
    • Transfer issues
lecture
Lecture

Advantages

  • Economical – large amounts of information to large numbers of trainees
  • Can be organized/structured/time efficient

Criticisms

  • One-way flow
  • Best for cognitive principles, facts rather than skills
  • Stress on verbal and symbolic understanding
  • Ignores individual differences
discussion
Discussion
  • Advantages
    • Two-way communication allows feedback, clarification, sharing views
  • Limitations
    • Needs skilled discussion leader
    • Time
    • Trainees need common reference point
    • Size of group
audiovisual methods
Audiovisual Methods
  • Static and dynamic media. telecommunication
  • Portray dynamic and complex events
    • Illustration of principles
    • Stop action, slow motion
    • Exposure to events not easily found live
    • Organization wide distribution
case study
Case Study
  • Illustrations of concepts to be learned, communication skills, analytical skills, integrate information
  • Critics-lack of realistic complexity, caught up in details, groupthink, limits teaching role of trainer
business games and simulations
Business Games and Simulations
  • Real life, active, assume roles, make decisions that have impact on game/simulation, can be motivating/involving
  • May lack complexity/realism, difficulty in model reflecting all aspects of reality
role playing
Role Playing
  • Act out situation and specific events, develop insights in own and other’s behaviors, develop interpersonal relationship, empathy
  • Problems with over dramatization, intimidation, realism, transfer
in basket technique
In-Basket Technique
  • Simulation of management decision-making
  • In-basket includes various memos, messages, etc.
  • Evaluation based on prioritizing, organizing, types of responses
behavior modeling
Behavior Modeling
  • Observe complex behavior, discuss, practice through role playing and feedback
  • Best if can identify with role models
  • Research support
things to consider for implementing behavior modeling part 1 of 2
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling– Part 1 of 2

•  Carefully select the trainer/program administrator who will set up and conduct the sessions. He or she must be skilled and experienced with this technique.

• Consider if this technique will meet your needs within constraints of time and money.

•  Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of training and involve the potential trainees and their bosses in this process.

•  Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a module around each small behavior.

• Do not emphasize more than seven learning points during any one training module.

• Models used to demonstrate the correct way of behaving/handling a certain situation should have sufficient status to be credible yet easy for the trainees to identify with.

• Using a videotape of a model performing the correct behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will see a positive example and may reduce costs since it is reusable.

things to consider for implementing behavior modeling part 2 of 2
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior Modeling– Part 2 of 2

• Before trainees actually practice the desired behavior, have them verbalize the behavioral cues demonstrated and then have them visualize their performance.

•  A supportive climate that encourages experimentation must be established for the practice sessions. Emphasis on positive reinforcement rather than criticism increases self-confidence and learning.

•  After each session, some behavior modeling experts provide a wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning points and critical steps. This acts as a security blanket.

•  Conduct a review session after several modules have been completed in order to reinforce the learning points and to demonstrate the progress that has been attained.

•  Manage the consequences of attempting the newly trained behaviors in the actual job situation.

pi example
PI Example
  • 1. Metals expand when heated. Copper is a metal and will _____when heated.
  • 2. When heated iron will ______less than copper.
  • 3. Thus different metals will expand by ________ when heated.
  • 4. The increase in the length is proportional to the ________in temperature.
  • 5. A copper bar expands by 0.2 cm when the temperature rises by 100 degrees C. It will expand by _____ if the temperature is increased by 200 degrees C.
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