Reproduction
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Reproduction. Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system. The menstrual cycle. P repares the ovaries for ovulation and the uterus for implantation. Starts at the age of puberty. Each cycle lasts on average 28 days.

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Reproduction

Reproduction


Male reproductive system

Malereproductivesystem


Female reproductive system

Femalereproductivesystem


The menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle

  • Prepares the ovaries for ovulation and the uterus for implantation.

  • Starts at the age of puberty.

  • Each cycle lasts on average 28 days.

  • The purpose of the menstrual cycle is to release an egg or ovum (ovulation) for possible fertilization and later implantation into the endometrium.

  • This inner lining of the uterus is not maintained if there is no implantation.

  • The breakdown of the blood vessels leads to the menstrual bleeding (menstruation) of a typical cycle.


Hormones and the menstrual cycle

Hormones and the menstrual cycle:


Effects of fsh and lh on the ovaries

Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries:


Effects of fsh and lh on the ovaries1

Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries:


Effects of fsh and lh on the ovaries2

Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries:


Effects of fsh and lh on the ovaries3

Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries:


Effects of fsh and lh on the ovaries4

Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries:


Hormones in males

Hormones in males:


In vitro fertilization

In-vitro Fertilization:

  • Some couples are unable to bear children for a wide variety of possible reasons, including:

    • Males with low sperm count

    • Males with impotence (failure to achieve or maintain an erection)

    • Females who cannot ovulate normally;

    • Females with blocked Fallopian tubes.

    • Reproductive technologies have been developed to overcome these situations. One of them is in-vitro fertilization (IVF)


Steps of an ivf include

Steps of an IVF include:

  • Inject the woman with FSH for 10 days to ensure the production of several Graafian follicles

  • Surgical harvest of the eggs (oocytes

  • The man ejaculates in a container to obtain sperm cells and these are mixed in separate culture dishes.

  • Fertilized ova (2 or 3) are introduced into the woman´s uterus for implantation.


Ethical issues concerning ivf

Ethical issues concerning IVF


Questions

Questions:

  • Imagine a panel put together to debate the pros and cons of IVF. Give three pro or con arguments that would be likely to be given by each of the following panel members.

    • Health insurance executive

    • Man or woman who needs IVF to have a child.

    • Religious representative

    • Administrator from an IVF clinic.

  • One method of birth control known as tubal ligation involves tying off and then surgically cutting the Fallopian tubes (oviducts). This is considered to be a permanent form of birth control even through it is sometimes possible to surgically reverse the procedure. Do a web search on the male equivalent of this procedure which is known as a vasectomy.

    • How is a vasectomy performed?

    • Should a vasectomy be considered a permanent form of birth control?


Sources

Sources

  • Damon, A., McGonegal, R., Tosto , P., & Ward, W. (2007). Biology Higher Level. New Jersey: Pearson.

  • http://www.shropshireivf.nhs.uk/about-fertility/reproductive-system.asp

  • http://click4biology.info/c4b/6/hum6.6.htm

  • http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookreprod.html

  • http://ynaija.com/teen/teen-y-health-girls-only-this-is-what-really-goes-on-in-your-body-28-days-in-a-month-look/

  • http://cnx.org/content/m44841/latest/

  • http://www.lifemartini.com/how-does-obesity-affects-fertility/

  • http://www.mindfully.org/Health/2005/In-Vitro-Fertilization14nov05.htm


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