Introduction to is fundamental concepts
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Introduction to IS & Fundamental Concepts. Infsy 540 Dr. R. Ocker. What are some characteristics of today’s business environment? . Characteristics of today’s business environment:. globalization global marketplace global competition global work groups global information systems.

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Characteristics of today s business environment
Characteristics of today’s business environment: environment?

  • globalization

    • global marketplace

    • global competition

    • global work groups

    • global information systems


Characteristics of today s business environment1
Characteristics of today’s business environment: environment?

  • transformation of industrial economies

    • knowledge and information-based economies

    • productivity

    • innovation

    • time-based competition

    • shorter product life

    • turbulent environment


Characteristics of today s business environment2
Characteristics of today’s business environment: environment?

  • transformation of the organization

    • flatter

    • decentralized

    • flexible

    • collaborative work and teamwork

    • empowered workforce

    • lower operating costs


Transformation of the business enterprise
Transformation of the Business Enterprise environment?

  • traditional business firm -

    • hierarchical

    • centralized

    • standard operating procedures for mass production

  • new style of business firm -

    • flatter

    • decentralized

    • flexible arrangement of generalists and specialists


Transformation of the business enterprise1
Transformation of the Business Enterprise environment?

  • similar to a symphony

  • consist of knowledge workers

    • college educated

    • members of profession (e.g., engineers, doctors, lawyers, scientists, etc.)

    • jobs consist primarily of creating new information and knowledge

  • IT has evolved to enable and support new form of organization


What is an information system is
What is an information system (IS)? environment?

  • interrelated components working together to

    • collect, process, store, disseminate information

  • to support

    • decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization


Components of an is
Components of an IS environment?

  • Hardware

  • software

  • databases

  • telecommunications (networks)

  • human resources (system professionals and end users)

  • procedures (specifications for the use, operation, & maintenance of IS)


3 activities in an is produce information
3 activities in an IS produce information environment?

  • 1. input - capture of raw data

  • 2. processing - conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input

  • 3. output - distribution of processed information

  • CBIS - computer-based information system - our focus in this course


Information vs data
Information vs. Data environment?

  • information technology =

    IS + telecommunications

  • information - data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to humans

  • data - raw facts before they have been organized and arranged into a form useful to people



Attributes of quality information
Attributes of Quality Information environment?

  • Timely

  • complete

  • concise

  • relevant

  • accurate

  • precise

  • appropriate form


Business perspective on is
Business perspective on IS environment?

  • an IS is an organizational and management solution, based on IT, to solve a business problem

  • to use IS effectively, must understand

    • organization - e.g. culture

    • knowledge workers - users of technology

    • management - diff. levels require diff. types of systems

    • role of IT within the organization


Sociotechnical perspective
Sociotechnical Perspective environment?

  • We will take a sociotechnical perspective on IT - the technology and the organization must mutually adjust to one another to achieve satisfactory fit

    task

    technology people

    structure


Different kinds of systems
Different kinds of systems environment?

  • Organizations and info. systems can be divided into four levels:

    • operational-level

    • knowledge-level

    • management-level

    • strategic-level


Organizational information systems provide
Organizational information systems provide: environment?

  • knowledge-work support

  • support knowledge and data workers in an organization; help workers design products, distribute information, and cope with paperwork; fastest growing applications

  • operational support

  • monitor low-level activities and transactions of the organization


Organizational information systems provide1
Organizational information systems provide: environment?

  • management-level support

  • support management activities of monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities of middle managers

  • executive-level support

  • support long-range planning activities of senior management


Six major types of systems
Six Major types of Systems environment?

  • TPS transaction processing systems

  • MRS management reporting systems DSS decision support systems

  • EIS executive information systems

  • PSS professional support systems

  • OIS office information systems


1 tps transaction processing systems
1. TPS environment? transaction processing systems

  • operational level

  • perform and record daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business


2 mrs management reporting systems
2. MRS environment? management reporting systems

  • Used by managers responsible for specific functions or processes in a firm

  • provide routine summary and exception reports

  • managers use these reports to help control their area of responsibility


3 dss decision support systems
3. DSS environment? decision support systems

  • Designed to support individual and collective decision making

  • often use information from external sources

  • more analytical power than other types of systems


4 eis executive information systems
4. EIS environment? executive information systems

  • strategic level of the organization

  • support long-term, strategic view

  • used by senior executives

  • easy access to summarized company data

  • incorporate external information on industry and economy


5 pss professional support systems
5. PSS environment? professional support systems

  • Support performance of tasks specific to a given profession

  • For example

    • lawyers doing legal research

    • architects designing buildings

    • designers modeling a new automobile


6 oas office information systems
6. OAS environment? office information systems

  • support and help coordinate knowledge work in an office environment

  • emphasis on increased productivity

  • systems include e-mail, scheduling systems, word processing


7 expert systems es
7. Expert Systems (ES) environment?

  • Branch of Artificial Intelligence

  • suggest a decision

  • based on a knowledge base (rather than a data base)

  • incorporate heuristics

    • informal “rules of thumb”

  • ES can be incorporated into all types of IS or can be used as stand-alone system


Information architecture
Information Architecture environment?

  • particular form that IT takes in an organization to achieve goals

  • computer systems base -

    • HW, SW, data, telecommunications

    • operated by technical people


Information architecture1
Information Architecture environment?

  • Managers design an organization’s information architecture

  • decide how to arrange and coordinate the various computer technologies and business system applications to meet the information needs of each level of the organization

    • operational, knowledge, management, strategic

  • more details next lecture


10 principal capabilities of is
10 Principal capabilities of IS environment?

  • 1. Fast and accurate data processing with large-capacity storage and rapid communication between sites

  • 2. Instantaneous access to information

  • 3. Means of coordination

  • 4. Boundary spanning

  • 5. Support for decision making


10 principal capabilities of is1
10 Principal capabilities of IS environment?

  • 6. Supporting organizational memory and learning

  • 7. Routinizing organizational practice

  • 8. Differentiation of products and services

  • 9. Modeling

  • 10. automation


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