Geographies of political change
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

Geographies of Political Change PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 79 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Geographies of Political Change. De- and Re- Territorializations. Where and how does change occur?. Sometimes peacefully European Union Often amidst conflict Looking for clarity in conflict zones……. Huntington’s civilizations. “Balkanization”. Conflicts in Africa: 1990-2002.

Download Presentation

Geographies of Political Change

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Geographies of political change

Geographies of Political Change

De- and Re-

Territorializations


Where and how does change occur

Where and how does change occur?

  • Sometimes peacefully

    • European Union

  • Often amidst conflict

    • Looking for clarity in conflict zones…….


Geographies of political change

Huntington’s civilizations


Balkanization

“Balkanization”


Conflicts in africa 1990 2002

Conflicts in Africa: 1990-2002


Ancient kingdoms of africa

Ancient Kingdoms of Africa


The spread of islam in africa

The Spread of Islam in Africa


African colonialism

African Colonialism


Geographies of political change

Nations in Africa


African nations and states

African nations and states


A better explanation of global political change

A better explanation of global political change?

The fundamental clash is not about civilizations but about “different conceptions of community and how these conceptions should be reflected in political arrangements and organizations.” (Holsti).

Key is linking

  • expressions of communal identity

  • territorial control

  • BUT AT WHAT SCALE?


Political geography key terms

Political Geography-Key Terms

  • State – political unit with defined territorial limits

  • Nation – group of people sharing cultural characteristics

    • Ethnographic boundaries – match nations to state boundaries

  • Regionalism: Government at the regional level

  • Global/International Governance and Politics


Political geography two key imperatives

Political Geography-Two key imperatives

  • Centripetal forces - pushing together

    • citizenship rules, common language, strong state

    • regional unions

    • international agreements

  • Centrifugal forces – pulling apart

    • Multi-national state, regional disparities in income

    • Balkanization

    • Fragmentation


Political change

Political change

  • In order to understand how the political world is changing…….

    Need to understand where it has been and where it is now

    Historical context


Empires and kingdoms

Empires and Kingdoms

  • Pre-1000 AD: Discrete Empires

    • China, African kingdoms, Latin American (Pre-Colombian)

  • 1000 ADKingdoms

    • France, Germanic Empire, Principality of Poland, etc.

    • Feudalism


Feudalism gives way to the state

Feudalism gives way to the State

  • End of Feudalism:

    • Struggles and peasant rebellions,

    • spread of trade,

    • Spread of Renaissance culture and classical political ideas

    • Military technology


Early modern states

Early modern states

  • Two Types during 16th-18th C.

    • absolutist

      • France, Prussia, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden

    • constitutional monarchies

      • UK and Holland

  • Characteristics:

    • Absorption of smaller, weaker units

    • Strengthened ability to rule

    • Tightened system of law and order

    • Single sovereign head


Geographies of political change

Absolutism paved the way for the emergence of the nation state by virtue of INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNANCE:

  • Territorial boundaries/uniform system of rule

  • Fiscal management

  • Centralized administration, military power

  • Development of diplomacy and standing armies

  • Law making and enforcement


The interstate system westphalian model

The Interstate System: Westphalian Model

  • The European “Society of States”: The Interstate System

    • Westphalian Model

    • Peace Treaties of Westphalia 1648, concluding 30 years war

    • 1648-1945 (or later)

  • Coalesced the system of politics and governance that we take for granted today

  • What are the unique attributes of the model of Westphalia?


How did the interstate system evolve

How did the Interstate system evolve?

  • Expansions of state system by colonialism

  • Intergovernmental organizations expand during end of 19th century

    • ITU

    • Postal Union

    • Railway Congress

    • Patents

    • Maritime Law

    • Scientific Standards


The modern nation state

The modern Nation-State

  • Territoriality: exact borders

  • Control over means of violence: “pacification” of peoples; breaking down of rivals (fragile achievement)

  • Impersonal structure of power: needed distance from power of religion and nobility

  • Claim to legitimacy: loyalty has to be won

  • Since WWII: rise of liberal democracies

    • 1974: 64% of states are authoritarian

    • 1995: 75% of states are more or less democratic


Issues of concern amidst democratic growth

Issues of Concern amidst Democratic Growth

  • Cycles of Democratic Growth

    • Reversals of Democracy

    • Illiberal Democracies

  • Democracy and Human Rights

  • Post-war international norms: what are they?

  • Uneven development

  • Responses to Globalization


The diffusion of democracy

The Diffusion of Democracy


Criteria for democracy

Criteria for Democracy

  • Constraints on the executive decision makers

  • Extent of competition among political forces

  • Regulation of political participation

  • Openness of recruitment into decision making bodies

    From: O'Loughlin et.al 1998


Diffusion of democracy

Diffusion of Democracy

  • MOVIE!!


Political geography two key imperatives1

Political Geography-Two key imperatives

  • Centripetal forces - pushing together

  • Centrifugal forces – pulling apart

  • What is the role of Borders?

    • Reinforced?

    • Made permeable?

    • Moved

    • Disappeared?


European union euroland

European Union/Euroland


Currently 50 ongoing conflicts

Currently: 50 ongoing conflicts


Geographies of political change

  • Issues:

  • Irredentism

  • Separatism

  • Minority Rights

  • Border Issues

  • Statelessness

Group 5

Group 1

Group3

Countries 4

Group 2


Variations on a theme

Fragmentation/

Balkanization

Yugoslavia

Maybe Georgia

Separatist movements

Chechnya

East Timor (already finished)

Border Conflicts

Israel/Palestine

Kashmir (Pakistan/India)

Statelessness

Kurds

Palestinians

Minority rights

Zapatistas

Variations on a theme


  • Login