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Fallacies. Fallacies in Making a Case. Fallacies of Relevance Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption. Fallacies of Relevance.  Irrelevant evidence is give to support the argument. Fallacies of Relevance. Appeal to Ignorance Example:

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Fallacies in making a case
Fallacies in Making a Case

  • Fallacies of Relevance

  • Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence

  • Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption


Fallacies of relevance
Fallacies of Relevance

Irrelevant evidence is give to support the argument


Fallacies of relevance1
Fallacies of Relevance

Appeal to Ignorance

Example:

Of course I believe in ESP. No one has ever demonstrated that it doesn’t exist.


Fallacies of relevance2
Fallacies of Relevance

Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

Example:

Aldous Huxley, renowned author, wrote a book advocating that nearsightedness could be cured with eye exercises.


Fallacies of relevance3
Fallacies of Relevance

Appeal to General Belief

Example:

We all know most people on welfare are just too lazy to work. We should start a program requiring those on welfare to provide community service to earn their money.


Fallacies of relevance4
Fallacies of Relevance

Appeal to Popular Attitudes & Emotions

Example:

I’ll tell you why I believe we were right to go into Iraq. It’s because I love my country. If you love America, then you’d agree.


Fallacies of relevance5
Fallacies of Relevance

Gambler’s Fallacy

Example:

The last ten flips have been tails, so heads should come up soon. We’d better bet all we have on heads.

Monty Hall problem


Fallacies of inadequate evidence
Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence

Arguments with premises that present relevant, but inadequate evidence to support a conclusion


Fallacies of inadequate evidence1
Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence

False Cause (Post Hoc)

Example:

I wore this pair of socks for the last game, and we won, so the socks must have given me good luck.


Fallacies of inadequate evidence2
Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence

Hasty Generalization

Example:

An accountant opens her own business. The first two clients lie about their income and she finds out. She concludes that most clients lie about their income.


Fallacies of Relevance

&

Inadequate Evidence


After death experiences are a reality. Despite years of attempts at debunking, no one has ever been able to show that reports from beyond the grave are all due to error, deception, or simply wishful thinking.


I’ve been feeding this slot machine for 20 minutes, and the person before me pumped in $200 with no payout. I’m due a hit any minute.


Nobody wants to say so in public, but we all know that immigrants don’t have as strong a commitment to this country as those of us who were born here.


The Dallas group held a rain dance at the Turtle Creek fountain Sunday night, and the group leader, Debra Denton, claimed it got results. “It rained, didn’t it?” she asked.


Dr. R.J. Palmer, one of New York’s leading oral surgeons, has pointed out that evolution theory requires us to say that a species of reptile changed into a birdlike creature, so the whole absurd theory is mistaken. Dr. Palmer’s scientific assessment shows why it is that no reasonable person can be an evolutionist.


You don’t have to be of noble birth to appreciate Cutty Sark Scotch Whiskey. All that is required is noble taste.


Americans reject gun control. A 2003 survey conducted at the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.

Arguments that rely on some sort of illegitimate premise


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption1
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.

False Dilemma

Example:

Either you’re for us or against us. It is obvious that you aren’t for us, so you must be against us.


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption2
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.

Loaded Question

Example:

Are you still beating your wife?


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption3
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.

Begging the Question

Example:

James is a murderer because he wrongfully killed someone.


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption4
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.

Slippery Slope

Example:

If we legalize marijuana, then next thing people will be shooting up heroine in every public bathroom.


Fallacies of illegitimate assumption5
Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption the National Hunting Association revealed that 71% of the 50 people interviewed are opposed to legal regulation, including the restriction of assault rifles.


Are women still discouraged from excelling in sports by a lack of financial or emotional support?


Once we adopt a policy of failing to enforce laws prohibiting littering, loitering, and panhandling, we might as well give up on enforcing the laws on assault, rape, and murder.


Adultery cannot be justified. The reason it can’t is simply that it is never acceptable for a married person to have sex with someone who is not his or her spouse.


When can I make up the exam I missed? simply that it is never acceptable for a married person to have sex with someone who is not his or her spouse.


We can achieve peace in the Middle East either by negotiations or by war. Negotiations have led nowhere, so what is there left to do but send in troops?


If we recognize Cuba diplomatically, then we will have to grant the same status to every country run by an anti-American dictator.



Senator Anson voted against the proposed constitutional amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.


Why do the Democrats always want to raise taxes? amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.


Fallacies of criticism
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Misdirection away from the main point, so the respondent doesn’t have to consider the legitimacy of the claim


Fallacies of criticism1
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Against the Person (Ad Hominem)

Example:

As a gay conservative, Andrew Sullivan can’t possibly have anything constructive to offer the right.


Fallacies of criticism2
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

You Too

Example:

  • Brown: You are a cheat. You left half your income off your tax return last year.

  • Smith: Big deal. You lied about deductions and had the nerve to claim your dog as a dependent.


Fallacies of criticism3
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Pooh-Pooh

Example:

Mr. Paulson would basically pooh-pooh the subprime problems until major Wall Street powers got in trouble and then—presto—swing into action.


Fallacies of criticism4
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Straw Man

Example:

The theory of evolution boils down to the idea that human beings are descended from apes.


Fallacies of criticism5
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Loaded Words

Example:

Medical research on animals simply must be stopped at once. This torture of innocent creatures is morally indecency, not science.


Fallacy of response
Fallacy of Response amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.

Definitional Dodge

Example:

You’re not real fan of the Bengals because you don’t finish watching the games when they’re losing.

Yeah, well, only a real fan has season tickets. And since I have season tickets and you don’t, I’m the true fan.


Fallacies of criticism6
Fallacies of Criticism amendment prohibiting burning the America flag as a form of protest. A legislator must either support the amendment or support flag burners. Senator Anson has made his choice, and next November the voters will make theirs.


Jimmy Carter: The survival of the world depends on ending the cycle of nuclear arms development. That’s why it’s crucial for us to join with other nuclear states and sign the SALT II Treaty.

Ronald Reagan: Jimmy Carter says we should sign the SALT II Treaty because nobody will like us if we don’t.


If you can’t come up with something besides the feminist cliché that our ad demeans women, I don’t see any reason to answer you.


Gloria’s views on fighting terrorism are wrong. Is she an intelligence expert? No. Someone with police experience? No. I tell you what she is, she’s a commercial baker. That’s right, a cookie maker!


So I don’t want to see gays in public office, but you’ve got no room to object. You don’t want to see women get elected.


Senator Clemens says we should spend less on giving tax rebates to the rich and more on improving education. But this is just the same tired liberal cliché we’ve heard before—nothing worth taking seriously.


Bob is as morally bankrupt as he is financially. rebates to the rich and more on improving education. But this is just the same tired liberal clich



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