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FCUSA Annual Meeting 2008. Societal Threats and Challenges. 07.31.2008 Sherwood Hill, Logan Canyon, Utah. Peter Sandbøl Research Manager Danish Fur Breeders Research Center – Kopenhagen Fur. Presentation Plan. Introduction to the Speaker: Who, Where and What

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Fcusa annual meeting 2008

FCUSA Annual Meeting 2008

Societal

Threats and Challenges

07.31.2008

Sherwood Hill, Logan Canyon, Utah

Peter Sandbøl

Research Manager

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center – Kopenhagen Fur


Presentation plan

Presentation Plan

Introduction to the Speaker:

Who, Where and What

Societal Threaths and Challenges:

Ethics:

Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare

Stereotypies - Domesticaiton

Environment:

Nutrient Losses

Smell Emmission

Flies


What is

Magazines

Research

Consultancy service

Veterinary service

Breeding programs

Feed control

Auction house

What is ..

Kopenhagen Fur is a cooperative association owned by 1,900 Danish fur breeders in Dansk Pelsdyravlerforening


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

Who

Alias

Research Manager

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center

Father

Grand Father

Great Grand Father

Alias Honorary Chief Eastern Star

of the Winnebagos / Ho-Chunks

Son

Peter Sandbøl


Where denmark

Mink farms: 1700

Farm size: 1500 females

Breeding females: 2,6 mill

Fox farms: 35

Breeding females: 3.000

Chinchilla:

Breeding females: 12.000

Where - Denmark


Danish fur breeders research center

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center1

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center2

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center

2370 Females:

1770 Brown/Glow

600 Black

About 12,500 – 13,000 pelts/year

2 stables for balance trials:

1 with 48 balance cages

1 with 36 modified farm cages

A total of 11-12 Employes


Danish fur breeders research center3

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center4

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center5

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center6

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center7

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center8

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center9

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center10

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center11

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Danish fur breeders research center12

Danish Fur Breeders Research Center


Where

Where

External Partners

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

PFC

Technical University of Denmark


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

What

External Focus Areas

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

Behaviour, Welfare & Health

Breeding, Genetics & Reproduction

(Nutrition & Physiology)

Genomics

Nutrition & Physiology

Health (Viral Research)

Behaviour

Technical University of Denmark

Health

Health (Astro virus)

Testing and Investigations on Farm Level


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

What

Own Focus Areas

Protein/Amino Acids

Nutrient Requirements and Balances

Nutritional Related Diseases and

Testing of Feed Ingredients

Fat / Fatty Acids

Vitamins

Biotin

Carbohydrates

Starch

Minerals

Salt


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

What

Behaviour

&

Welfare

Management

Breeding

&

Genetics

Health

&

Disease

Nutrition

&

Physiology


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

What

Behaviour

&

Welfare

Ethics

Environment

Management

Breeding

&

Genetics

Health

&

Disease

Nutrition

&

Physiology

Feed

Ingredients

Production

Systems


Presentation plan1

Presentation Plan

Introduction to the Speaker:

Who, Where and What

Societal Threaths and Challenges:

Ethics:

Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare

Stereotypies - Domestication

Environment:

Nutrient Losses

Smell Emmission

Flies


Ethics

Ethics

Behaviour

&

Welfare

Management

Breeding

&

Genetics

Ethics

Feed

Ingredients

Production

Systems

Health

&

Disease

Nutrition

&

Physiology


New legislation

First Danish order on fur animals in effect last year.

Based on EU recommendations.

Contains regulations regarding:

Biological characteristics

Behavioural needs

Cage designs

Management procedures

New Legislation


Subjects

Biological characteristics of the farmed mink

Behavioural needs

Occupational materials

Empty cages between breeding females

Social housing

Winter feeding

Selection against fearful mink

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

Conclusion

Subjects


The biological characteristics

Reduced fear

The biological characteristics

  • Improved production capacity

  • 1957:

  • Females 950 g

  • Males 1600 g

  • 1969:

  • Barren females: 18 %

  • Kits / mated female: 3,5

  • 2007:

  • Barren females: 8 - 9 %

  • Kits / mated female: 5,0 – 5,5

  • Females: 1600 g

  • Males: 3000 g

Brain Weight

Wild 9.11 grams

Ranch 8.38 grams

Reduction-10.6 %


The behavioural needs 1993

”The five freedoms”

Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition

Appropriate comfort and shelter

Prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease

Freedom to display most normal patterns of behaviour

Freedom from fear

The behavioural needs (1993)


Characteristics of behavioural needs

All individuals perform the behaviour

Denying the animal to perform the behaviour induces a state of chronic stress

The behaviour is primarily internally motivated and performed even in the absence of the required stimuli (vacuum activity)

The behaviour is performed at an abnormally high rate when the animal is eventually allowed to perform the behaviour after a period of deprivation (rebound effect)

The display has in itself rewarding properties (endorphins)

Characteristics of behavioural needs


Swimming water not a behavioural need

Not all mink use swimming water

Mink don’t increase use after deprivation

Access has no effect on:

stereotypic behaviour,

fur chewing,

anticipatory behaviour,

does not unambiguously decrease the level of cortisol

Swimming water: not a behavioural need


Behavioural priorities

Mink are willing to work for access to swimming water as well as access to a running wheel

Use of water seems related to foraging/explorative behaviour, but does not seem to be an ”innate” or biological need.

Behavioural priorities


Occupational materials

Straw

Manipulate

Nest-building

Insulation

Occupational materials


Occupational materials1

Shelf or tube attached to ceiling

Rest or look-out

Refuge from the male and the kits

Occupational materials


Occupational materials2

Tubes and chewing materials (ropes)

Reduce stereotypies, fur chewing and cortisol Level

Occupational materials


Cage area

Doubling of the standard cage area has:

No effect on

stereotypies,

fur chewing or

the cortisol level

Cage area


Empty cage between breeding females

Empty cage between breeding females

  • Improves reproduction

  • No effect on reproduction, but the females are less out in the cage

  • Less stereotypies and less interaction between females

  • Catching is stressful to the females

(Overgaard, 1999)


Group housing family housing

Increased aggression

No increase in play behaviour

Increases the number of mink with bite-marks

Reduced possibility of inspection of the individual mink

Group housing/family housing


Restricted feeding prohibited except 8 days prior to mating

Flushing:

14 days of restricted feeding followed by ad lib increases number of ovulated and implanted eggs.

Slimming:

effect on reproduction

increases anticipatory activity prior to feeding and

the development of stereotypies

can be done without increasing stereotypies

by use of low energy feed

Effects of individual feeding and low energy feed on stereotypies continue to be studied

Restricted feeding prohibitedExcept 8 days prior to mating


Restricted feeding prohibited except 8 days prior to mating1

Restricted feeding prohibitedExcept 8 days prior to mating

  • Slimming: Effect on reproduction


Selection against fearful mink

Selection against fearful mink

  • Fear is a natural behaviour

  • The threshold value for showing fear is changed by selection

  • Commercial breeding programmes for behavioural selection are available: Fearful, Control,Confident.


Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

  • The farmed mink is domesticated

  • Farmed mink live accordance with their natural behaviour

    • Mate naturally

    • Give birth only once a year

    • Weaning at 8 weeks of age

    • Litter is split up gradually

    • Young mink are kept in pairs (male + female)

    • Adult mink are kept individually


Status of the welfare of the farmed mink1

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

  • Cage size ensures performance of specific behavioural elements

    • Move freely

    • Groom themselves

    • Lie down, curl up to sleep, stretch their limbs

    • Withdraw to their nestbox to rest or use shelf or tube

    • Permanent access to straw and shelf or tube


Status of the welfare of the farmed mink2

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

  • Abnormal behaviour

    • Stereotypic behaviour is rare in young mink

    • Stereotypies are primarily seen during winter and are primarily related to feeding time

    • Fur chewing is hereditary and the occurrence has been reduced

    • Fur chewing can be further reduced by use of occupational materials for chewing and pulling


Status of the welfare of the farmed mink3

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

  • Empty cage between females

    • Peace and quietness during the sensitive period

    • However, in practice it means catching the females once more

  • Killing

    • At the cages

    • Quick and painless

    • Transport is not necessary


Status of the welfare of the farmed mink4

Status of the welfare of the farmed mink

  • Health

    • Generally the health of the mink is good

    • The extent and intensity of welfare problems are low

    • The standard cage system makes it possible to monitor the animals

  • Group housing

    • Reduces the possibilities of monitoring the individual mink

    • No positive effect on mink welfare

    • Increases aggression and the occurrence of bite-marks


Conclusion on ethics

Conclusion on Ethics

  • The welfare of mink kept in standard cages is good

  • The new order has improved the welfare of the mink further in relation to:

    • Occupational materials

    • Selection for confident temperament

    • Limited restrictive feeding

    • Increased peace and quietness during the nursing period.


Conclusion on ethics1

Conclusion on Ethics

  • However, not all the regulations are unambiguously positive for the welfare of the mink.

    • Catching/moving the females once more

    • Can the often fat breeding animals be brought into a proper condition in 8 days ?

    • Group housing reduces the welfare of the mink

  • Further studies

    • Occupation of the mink

    • Reduced aggression in groups of mink

    • Individual feeding

    • Low-energy feed without the mink feeling hungry


Presentation plan2

Presentation Plan

Introduction to the Speaker:

Who, Where and What

Societal Threaths and Challenges:

Ethics:

Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare

Stereotypies - Domestication

Environment:

Nutrient Losses

Smell Emission

Flies


Environment

Environment

The Environmental Agenda is

Outlined by Society!

  • Nutrient Losses

  • Smell Emission

  • Flies


Environment1

Environment

Production

systems

Management

Breeding

&

Genetics

Environment

Nutrition

&

Physiology

Feed

Ingredients


Loss of nutrients

Loss of Nutrients

  • Norms

  • Balance

    • – Nitrogen leaching

    • –Ammonia evaporation

  • Adjustment possibilities


Norms

Norms


Model for n and p emmission

Model for N and P Emmission

Manure

Feed Spillage

100 % N

100 % P

25 % N

7 % N

26 % N

48 % P

26 % N

48 % P

20 % N

65 % N

52 % P

Feed Spillage

8 % N

8 % P

40 % N

38 % P

28 % N

48 % P


Model for n and p emmission1

Model for N and P Emmission

Liquid Manure

Feed Spillage

100 % N

100 % P

Feed Spillage

100 % N

100 % P

2 % N

10 % N

40 % N

23 % P

54 % N

71 % P

19 % N

19 % N

65 % N

52 % P

Feed Spillage

8 % N

8 % P

13 % N

15 % P

25 % N

65 % P


Model for n and p emmission2

Model for N and P Emmission

Feed Spillage

100 % N

100 % P

Feed Spillage

100 % N

100 % P

With Gutter and Weekly Emptying

With Gutter and Daily Emptying

40 % N

23 % P

32 % N

23 % P

62 % N

71 % P

54 % N

71 % P

19 % N

11 % N

Feed Spillage

8 % N

8 % P

Feed Spillage

8 % N

8 % P

13 % N

15 % P

13 % N

15 % P


Ammonia evaporation

Ammonia Evaporation

32 41 50 59 68 77

Temperature, F

Emptying every other day

32 41 50 59 68 77

Temperature, F

Emptying daily

32 41 50 59 68 77

Temperature, F

Emptying every 5, 6 or 7 days

32 41 50 59 68 77

Temperature, F

Emptying every 3-4 days


Possibilities

Possibilities

  • Actions to reduce environmental load:

  • Breeding – Selection for:

    • Better feed conversion

    • Larger litter size at pelting

    • Shorter production period

      • Later birth

      • Earlier pelting

  • Nutrition:

    • Optimised feed composition

  • Management:

    • Reduce feed spillage

    • Utilise compensatory growth ?

    • Optimise the winter feeding


Possibilities1

Possibilities

2.

Larger Litter Size at Pelting - Mortality:

Birth to Pelting:20-30 %

Birth to 4 days:10-25 %

Dead born kits weighing 4.8-9.3 grams

Heritability for Feed Efficiency: 0.30

3.

Later Birth – Earlier Pelting

Time of birth is hereditary

Time of pelting varies.

Week


Possibilities2

Possibilities

  • Actions to reduce environmental load:

  • Breeding – Selection for:

    • Better feed conversion

    • Larger litter size at pelting

    • Shorter production period

      • Later birth

      • Earlier pelting

  • Nutrition:

    • Optimised feed composition

  • Management:

    • Reduce feed spillage

    • Utilise compensatory growth ?

    • Optimise the winter feeding


Protein requirement

Is an extreme simplification

The requirement is for Amino Acids

AA’s with a certain balance

an Amino Acid Profile

Protein Requirement


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

Principle for Nitrogen Metaboslism(Protein /Amino Acid)

N for Maintenance

N for Production:

Growth

Fur

Foetus

Milk

N in Feed

N in Urine

N in faeces

Digestibility Coefficient: DC = (N in Feed - N in Faeces) / N in Feed

”Biological Value”: BV = (Digested N – N in Urine) / Digested N*100


Effect of digestibility

Effect of Digestibility


Feed composition bv

Feed Composition – ”BV”

Skrede, (1978)


Protein in danish mink feed

Protein in Danish Mink Feed

MEP


Norms1

Norms

Norm = Requirement + Safety Margin

Basis for norm = Best Available Knowledge

A norm is dynamic


Effect of nitrogen reduction

Effect of Nitrogen Reduction


Nutrient loss growers

Nutrient Loss - Growers

Skrede, (1978)


Nutrient loss growers1

Nutrient Loss - Growers

Hejlesen, (2001)


Nutrient loss growers2

Nutrient Loss - Growers

Einarsson & Enggaard, (2000)


Nutrient loss lactation

Nutrient Loss - Lactation


Lactation

Lactation


Weaning

Weaning


Protein level

Protein Level

Energy Distribution in the Tested Feeds


Fcusa annual meeting 2008

Protein Level

Urine N i response to digested N

at three levels of ME from protein


Possibilities3

Possibilities

  • Actions to reduce environmental load:

  • Breeding – Selection for:

    • Better feed conversion

    • Larger litter size at pelting

    • Shorter production period

      • Later birth

      • Earlier pelting

  • Nutrition:

    • Optimised feed composition

  • Management:

    • Reduce feed spillage

    • Utilise compensatory growth ?

    • Optimise the winter feeding


Feed spillage

Feed Spillage


Compensatory growth

Compensatory Growth?


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Relevant measures to reduce nutrient loss

  • must be based on

  • a total economic evaluation

  • including a.o.:

  • Alternative feed ingredients

  • Price for land

  • Alternativ deposition / utilisation


Environment2

Environment

The Environmental Agenda is

Outlined by Society!

  • Nutrient Losses

  • Smell Emission

  • Flies


Smell emission

Smell Emission

Reduce the amount of

Sulphur containing Ingredients

in the feed: (Feathers – Sulphuric Acid)

Add relevant ”smell reducers”

To the feed and / or the manure


Smell emmision

Smell Emmision

Waste Management: It's About Thyme

Thymol is the acktive compound in thyme oil, which

can be extracted from herbs like thyme and oregano.

Thymol is used in i.e. tooth paste, mouth wash products a.o.

In cattle manure thymol reduces the concentrationen of

Foul smelling fatty acids and coliform bacteria


Environment3

Environment

The Environmental Agenda is

Outlined by Society!

  • Nutrient Losses

  • Smell Emission

  • Flies


Flies

Flies

Optimize the present management strategy

Develop new and better management strategies

Use alternatives to traditional insecticides


Flies1

Flies

Alternative Insecticides?

Glucosinolates

Produced in brassica species, i.e. rape seed.

When the plant is destroyed, they are hydrolysed

to, i.e. isothiocyanates, thiocyanates and nitrils.

These are poisonous against a range of pathogenes,

like nematodes, bacteria, fungus, and insects.


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