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The Enlightenment Review Questions. What was the Enlightenment?. The Enlightenment. A philosophical movement of the 18th century (1700s), in which philosophers began to apply reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society – government, religion, economics, and education.

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The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

A philosophical movement of the 18th century (1700s), in which philosophers began to apply reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society – government, religion, economics, and education.



The scientific revolution paved the way for the e nlightenment
The Scientific Revolution paved the way for the Enlightenment.

  • Scientists discovered laws that governed nature.

  • Philosophers began to look for laws that governed human behavior.

  • Philosophers began to apply reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society – government, religion, economics, and education.



The enlightenment was started by two english political thinkers hobbes and locke
The Enlightenment was started by two English political thinkers: Hobbes and Locke

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke



Thomas hobbes
Thomas Hobbes government was absolute monarchy?



Thomas hobbes believed that people were selfish and wicked therefore needed to be controlled
Thomas Hobbes believed that people were selfish and wicked; therefore needed to be controlled.

People are evil and wicked and need to be controlled.


What book did thomas hobbes write

What book did Thomas Hobbes write? therefore needed to be controlled.


Leviathan
Leviathan therefore needed to be controlled.



Hobbes believed that government was a contract between the ruler and the people. People gave up ALL of their rights in exchange for protection.



John locke
John Locke and that people had natural rights?


What book did john locke write

What book did John Locke write? and that people had natural rights?


Two treatise of government
Two Treatise of Government and that people had natural rights?


Who were 3 french philosophes
Who were 3 French and that people had natural rights?Philosophes?


Voltaire and that people had natural rights?

Montesquieu

Rousseau



Voltaire
Voltaire church and state?

“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

Separation of Church and State



Montesquieu
Montesquieu powers and checks and balances?

You better check yourself!

Checks and Balances


What book did montesquieu write

What book did Montesquieu write? powers and checks and balances?


The spirit of laws
The Spirit of Laws powers and checks and balances?


Which enlightenment philosopher believed that direct democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


Rousseau
Rousseau democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


What book did rousseau write
What book did Rousseau write? democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


Rousseau wrote the social contract
Rousseau wrote “The Social Contract.” democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?

You have got to read this! It is not like Hobbes’ version of a social contract. Mine gives people way more rights!

“Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”


Who were two important women philosophers

Who were two important women philosophers? democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


Mary astell and mary wollstonecraft
Mary democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?Astell and Mary Wollstonecraft


What book did mary astell write

What book did Mary democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?Astell write?


Mary astell wrote a serious proposal to the ladies
Mary democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?Astell wrote “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies.”

“If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state, how comes it to be so in a family?…If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?”


What book did mary wollstonecraft write
What book did Mary Wollstonecraft write? democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


Mary wollstonecraft wrote a vindication of the rights of woman
Mary Wollstonecraft wrote democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?“A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.”

“Let women share rights and she will emulate the virtues of men; for she must grow more perfect when emancipated.”


Why is the enlightenment important
Why is the Enlightenment Important? democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?


Democracies today are a result of the enlightenment
Democracies today are a result of the Enlightenment. democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?

Full democracies are in green, flawed in yellow, hybrid regimes in orange and authoritarian regimes in red. Microstates and countries for which there was no data (Somalia) are in grey:


The Declaration of Independence democracy was the best form of government and that everyone was equal?

T

“among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”

John Locke said that people were born with the right to life, liberty, and property

Thomas Jefferson


Enlightenment thinkers challenged the theory of divine right and the union of church and state
Enlightenment thinkers challenged the theory of divine right and the union of church and state.

We do not believe in divine right. Rulers don’t get their power from God. They get it from us, the people!


The French Revolution and the union of church and state.

The American Revolution


The u s constitution
The U.S. Constitution and the union of church and state.

The Constitution sets up three branches of Government, just as Montesquieu recommended.



  • religious tolerance, Constitution

  • a belief in progress,

  • the world becoming more secular

  • the rise of individualism


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