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Intro to Invertebrates . Chapter 25 Sections 1 & 2. Invertebrates (inverts) include all animals that lack a backbone, or vertebral column. This includes 33 Phyla. Phylum Porifera. The term Porifera means “pore-bearers” in Latin. This phylum includes Sponges.

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intro to invertebrates

Intro to Invertebrates

Chapter 25

Sections 1 & 2


Invertebrates (inverts) include all animals that lack a backbone, or vertebral column.

    • This includes 33 Phyla
phylum porifera
Phylum Porifera
  • The term Poriferameans “pore-bearers” in Latin.
  • This phylum includes Sponges.
  • Most ancient member of the Kingdom Animalia.
  • One of the most simple organisms
phylum cnidaria
Phylum Cnidaria
  • Organisms include jellyfish, anemones, hydra, and coral.
  • These organisms are always aquatic.
  • Can live in giant colonies such as the Great Barrier Reef
phylum nematoda
Phylum Nematoda
  • Range in size from microscopic to 1 meter
  • Can live on land and in water.
  • Some are parasitic
  • Closely related to the phylum Arthropoda
phylum platyhelminthes
Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • Commonly known as flatworms.
  • They are the most simple animals to have 3 germ layers.
  • Most are only 3mm thick.
phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida
  • Includes organisms such as earthworms and leeches
  • The word Annelida means little ring in Latin
phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca
  • Includes both marine and terrestrial organisms
  • Ex. Snails, clams, squid, and octopi
  • Have a larval stage in development
  • Typically have an internal or external shell
  • Echino- means spiny in Greek and Detmis- means skin (spiny skin)
  • Includes sea urchins, sand dollars, and Sea Stars
  • Only live in the sea
  • Have a structure called “tube feet”
body plans of inverts
Body Plans of Inverts
  • Body Symmetry
    • Radial Symmetry- a number of imaginary planes drawn through the center of the body will divide the organism in equal halves.
      • Ex: Sea Stars, Sea Anemone, and Jelly Fish

Bilateral symmetry- a single imaginary plane divides the body into left and right sides that are mirror images of each other.

    • Lobster, earthworms, snails

Germ Layers-during embryonic development the cells of most animals differentiate into 3 layers, called germ layers

    • Endoderm- is the inner most layer and develops the lining of the digestive tract and much of the respiratory system.

Mesoderm- middle layer that gives rise to muscles and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems.

  • Ectoderm- outermost layer that produces sense organs, nerves, and the outer layer of the skin

Body Cavities- a fluid-filled space between the digestive tract and the body wall

    • The most complex organisms have a true coelom, which is a body cavity that develops within the mesoderm and is completely lined.
    • Pseudocoelom is a partially lined body cavity
    • Acoelomthere is no body cavity present.

Segmentation- repeated parts on an animal. Most have repeated body parts on the inside also.


Cephalization-The concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the organisms anterior end. (to have a head)

    • The most successful animal groups exhibit cephalization.