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• 16 Nov 1950: Egypt demanded that British leave the Suez Canal zone.• 26 July Nasser announced that Egypt was taking over the Canal• 23 June 1956: Nasser elected president of Egypt without opposition.• 19 July 1956: Britain and US refused to provide financing for theAswan dam project.• 26 July 1956: Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company.• 28 July 1956: Britain froze Egyptian assets in London.• 1 Aug 1956: US, Britain and France hold talks about the Suez Canal.• 29 Oct 1956: Israeli forces crossed the Egyptian frontier anddrove toward canal.• 30 Oct 1956: Anglo-French ultimatum issued to Egypt and Israelasking that both withdraw ten miles from the canal zone. Egypt rejected the ultimatum.
• 31 Oct 1956: Anglo-French forces attacked Egypt in the Canalzone. Israeli occupied the Gaza Strip and key points on the SinaiPeninsula.• 6 Nov 1956: Cease fire forced by U.S. pressure.• 1 March 1957: Israel agreed to withdraw from the Gaza Strip and Sinai.
Canal= Egypt’s one major asset, but ran by Paris based company until 1968 Nationalization of the Suez Canal Company- Egypt construct dam on Nile at Aswan to regulate flow and provide cheap hydroelectric power and irrigation- July 26-improve conditions of his ppl
Belief that Arabs were incapable of accepting peaceful co-existence. This led to defense forces being the primary focus of the government
Ben-Guiron promoted retaliation, use of force and pre-emptive war
Access to the Canal in order to protect the Homeland from Arab influence and invasion
Access to the Canal for economic stability.
Nasser pushed nationalist rebellion in Algeria, which was a part of the French Republic, since then, France was hostile to Egypt
British perception of problems were two-fold:
1. Fear that Egypt was increasingly falling under Soviet influence (refusal to join the Baghdad Pact)
2. Nationalism of the Suez Canal deprived Britain of its profits and was a political and military challenge
Gamal Abdel Nasser- Egyptian president, nationalized the Suez Canal which led to tensions with the UK and France over their respective claims to the canal and its use.
Dwight Eisenhower- President of the United States, strongly opposed any conflict with the Middle East and used the US’s monetary influence to end the violence.
Moshe Dayan- Israeli Defense Force Chief of Staff
Anthony Eden- UK Prime Minister, disregarded Eisenhower’s warning not to enter into conflict with Egypt and Israel by supporting the launching sites of Malta and Cyprus and lending troops and equipment to the ensuing battles and occupation.
Guy Mollet- French Prime Minister, worked closely with David Ben-Gurion of Israel to take down Nasser after the Egyptian leader incited rebellion in Algeria.
David Ben-Gurion- The Israeli leader was attempting to form a successful alliance with a European power in order to ensure their ability to compete with Egypt. He was able to secure such a coalition of his forces with France, under the premise that they would enable him to invade Egypt.
Oct 30th : Israeli troops reach the Canal. Britain and France deliver ultimatum to Israel and Egypt to withdraw forces. Nasser rejects this ultimatum.
Oct 31st-Nov 1st: British and French fighter bombers attack Egypt air fields and economic strong holds
Eisenhower catches word of the bombings and takes the case to the United Nations
Outcomes of the Conflict
November 2nd - United Nations ordered a cease-fire
Eisenhower Doctrine-a policy stating that the United States would use armed forces to help any country in the Middle East that requested assistance against communism
Resignation of Anthony Eden as British Prime Minister.
Guy Mollet's position as French Prime Minister was heavily damaged leading to his recognition five months later
End of Britain's and France’s role as major players in the Middle East
The UNEF would police the Egyptian–Israeli border to prevent bothsides from future confrontations
Nasser emerged from the crisis the hero of the Arab World, expanded his regional influence and established Egypt as the leader of the Arab World, and emerged from the conflict with possession of the Suez Canal
UNEF guaranteed freedom of shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel
Israel’s military reputation was enhanced
Group Members: Misha Miller-Hughes, Nick Truman, MckensieLui, BJ Bolden, Ada T-J
The Arab-Israeli Conflict by Kristen E. Schulze
The Arab-Israeli Conflict by T.G. Fraser
Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation: The Suez Crisis of 1956