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The Paralympic Games. By Balayan Marne, form 9a, school 29. Teacher: Yankelevich E.V.

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The Paralympic Games

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The Paralympic Games

By Balayan Marne, form 9a, school 29.

Teacher: Yankelevich E.V.

The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event, involving athletes with a range of physical and intellectual disabilities, including mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy.


Cerebral palsy

Mobility disabilities


The originsoftheParalympicGamesarecreditedtoneurologistandneurosurgeon, ProfessorLudwigGuttmann.The SecondWorldWarinfluencedanewoutlookontheissueofrehabilitationforpeoplewithdisabilities.

In 1944, ProfessorGuttmannfoundedamedicalcenteratStoke-Mandeville

Hospital (UK) forthetreatmentofpeoplewithspinalcordinjuries.

Later, hebecameafounderoftheInternationalStoke-Mandevillegamesforpeoplewithinjuriesofthelocomotorapparatus. Thesegamesweretheprototypefor


ParalympicsemblemisdifferentfromthetraditionalOlympics; ithasthreehalf-circlesthatrepresentthespirit, willandmind.

There have been several milestones in the Paralympic movement. The first official Paralympic Games were held in Rome in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games. The Games were initially open only to athletes in wheelchairs; at the 1976 Summer Games, athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a Summer Paralympics. With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries.

The 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, South Korea, was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the Olympic Summer Games, in the same host city, and using the same facilities. This set a precedent that was followed in 1992, 1996 and 2000. It was eventually formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 2001, and was recently extended through 2020.

There are Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held immediately following the Olympic Games

  • 1960 I SummerParalympics Rome, Italy

  • 1964II Summer ParalympicsTokyo, Japan

  • 1968III Summer ParalympicsTelAviv, Israel

  • 1972IV Summer ParalympicsHeidelberg, WestGermany

  • 1976V Summer ParalympicsToronto, Canada

  • 1980VI Summer ParalympicsArnhem, Netherlands

  • 1984VII Summer Paralympics Stoke Mandeville, UK,New York, The USA

  • 1988VIII Summer ParalympicsSeoul, RepublicofKorea

  • 1992IX Summer ParalympicsBarcelonaandMadrid,Spain

  • 1996X Summer ParalympicsAtlanta, UnitedStates

  • 2000XI Summer ParalympicsSydney, Australia

  • 2004XII Summer ParalympicsAthens, Greece

  • 2008XIII Summer ParalympicsBeijing, China

  • 2012XIV Summer ParalympicsLondon, UnitedKingdom

The first Winter Paralympic Games were held in 1976 in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden. This was the first Paralympics in which multiple categories of athletes with disabilities could compete.

The Winter Games were celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart, just as the Olympics were. This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in Albertville, France; after that, beginning with the 1994 Games, the Winter Paralympics and the Winter Olympics have been held in those even numbered years separate from the Summer Games.

Winter ParalympicGames

  • 1976 I Winter ParalympicsÖrnsköldsvik, Sweden

  • 1980 II Winter Paralympics Geilo, Norway

  • 1984 III Winter ParalympicsInnsbruck, Austria

  • 1988IV Winter ParalympicsInnsbruck, Austria

  • 1992 V Winter ParalympicsTignes & Albertville, France

  • 1994 VI Winter ParalympicsLillehammer, Norway

  • 1998 VII Winter ParalympicsNagano, Japan

  • 2002 VIII Winter Paralympics Salt Lake City, United States

  • 2006 IX Winter ParalympicsTurin, Italy

  • 2010 X Winter ParalympicsVancouver, Canada

  • 2014 XI Winter ParalympicsSochi, Russia

There are twenty Paralympic sports on the Summer Paralympic program and there are five Paralympic sports on the Winter Paralympics program. Within some of the sports are several events. For example, alpine skiing has a slalom and giant slalom.

All ParalympicGamesaregovernedbytheInternationalParalympicCommittee (IPC).It comprises 174 National Paralympic Committees (NPC) and four disability-specific international sports federations. The president of the IPC is Philip Craven, a former Paralympian from Great Britain. In his capacity as head of the IPC, Craven is also a member of the International Olympic Committee. The IPC's international headquarters are in Bonn, Germany. The IPC is responsible for organizing the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games.

The president of the IPC is Philip Craven,a former Paralympian from Great Britain.

IrekZaripovAyratovich-Russiansportsman, MeritedMasterofSportsofRussia, four-timechampionoftheParalympicsWinterGamesin 2010 inVancouver.

DmitryMedvedevandIrekZaripovontheOrder "ForServicestotheFatherland» IV degreeOrder "ForServicestotheFatherland» IV degree (26 March 2010) - foroutstandingcontributiontothedevelopmentofphysicalcultureandsports, highathleticachievementsatthe X ParalympicsWinterGames 2010 inVancouver (Canada)

MariaIovleva - doubleParalympicschampionandsilvermedalistParalympicsWinterGames 2010 inVancouver. HonoredMasterofSportsofRussia.

AnnaMilenina (Burmistrov) (bornJuly 15, 1986, Krasnoturinsk, SverdlovskOblast, RSFSR, USSR) - a Paralympicschampion, MeritedMasterofSportsofRussia.

Sergey V. Shilov - six-timechampionoftheParalympicsGames, thefour-timeEuropeanchampionandawinneroftheWorldCupskiracing, awinnerofthecontinentalchampionshipinathletics.HonoredMasterofSportsofRussiainskiing, world-classathleteinbiathlon, world-classathleteintrackandfield, a candidatemasteroforienteering.

Paralympic medals.

For many years Russia had no impediment – free environment. Stairways, lifts and doors – all these were designed as if the country didn’t have people with disabilities. The situation is changing dramatically thanks to the Sochi Games. Russia has a unique opportunity to integrate people with disabilities into the life of society. Transport, roads, sports and social infrastructure will provide a model for an impediment-free environment for the whole country.Paralympic sport, the Paralympic movement have more important goals: to change society’s attitude towards people with disabilities.

See you in Sochi in 2014…

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