Zhongli pan ph d usda ars wrrc univ of california davis
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New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables. Zhongli Pan Ph.D. USDA ARS WRRC Univ. of California, Davis. University of California - Locations. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego San Francisco Santa Barbara Santa Cruz.

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Zhongli Pan Ph.D. USDA ARS WRRC Univ. of California, Davis

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New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables

Zhongli Pan Ph.D.

USDA ARS WRRC

Univ. of California, Davis


University of California - Locations

  • Berkeley

  • Davis

  • Irvine

  • Los Angeles

  • Merced

  • Riverside

  • San Diego

  • San Francisco

  • Santa Barbara

  • Santa Cruz


University of California - Profiles

  • Chartered in 1868

  • 10 Campuses

    • Five medical schools and teaching hospitals

    • Three law schools

  • Three National Labs

  • Two Centers

  • 45 Nobel Prizes (12 of them since 1995)

  • 320 members of the National Academy of Sciences

  • More UC academic programs are rated among top 10 than other universities

  • 42,000 graduates each year, including 7.5% of the nation’s Ph.D.

  • Total 970,000 living alumni


University of California - Profiles

  • Enrollment (fall 2001)

    • Total 183,355

      • Undergraduate 141,366

      • Graduate 41,989

    • UC Extension enrollment44,102

  • Budget

    • Total $14 billion

      • State of California26%

      • Gifts, grants and contracts23%

      • Medical centers19%

      • Student tuition and fees11%

      • Education activities9%

      • Auxiliary enterprises6%

      • Other sources6%


University of California - Davis

  • Established 1908

  • Nation’s top 12 public universities.

  • School of Veterinary Medicine - No. 1.

  • International leader in agricultural, biotechnological and environmental science

  • Enrollment

    • Undergraduate19,460

    • Graduate5,632

    • Total25,092

  • 900 Teaching Faculty (FTE)

  • 1700 Research Faculty (FTE)

  • 14000 Other Staff (FTE)


University of California - Davis


University of California - Davis


Biological and Agricultural Engineering

  • 30 faculty members

    • Including 10 joint appointees

    • Strong ties w/ Food Science & Technology

  • 20 staff members

  • 180 undergraduate students

  • 50 graduate students


Undergraduate Major:Biological Systems Engineering


Undergraduate Specializations

·      Agricultural engineering

·  Aquacultural engineering

·      Biomechanical/Premedical/engineering*

·      Biotechnical engineering*

·      Ecological systems engineering

·      Food engineering

·      Forest engineering

* most student interest is in these two areas


Undergraduate Minors(in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences)

  • Applied Biological Systems Technology

    • 0-1 graduate per year

  • Geographic Information Systems

    • 5-10 graduates per year

  • Precision Agriculture

    • 0-1 graduate per year


Graduate Program:Biological Systems Engineering


Some Recent Research Projects


Agricultural Engineering


Precision Agriculture


Differential GPS

Base

Station

Differential Correction


Tomato Yield Monitor


Electronic Weigh Bucket -Loading


Displacement sensor

Radar

Load cell

Moisture Sensor

Standard tine

Texture/soil Compaction Sensor

D = f (Geometry,

Speed,

Depth,

Bulk Density,

Texture, and

Moisture Content)


Measurement of Soil Water Suction and Water Content

Temperature sensor

sensor

Watermark sensor


Variable Rate Applicator


Pistachio Yield Monitor


Testing precision irrigation for orchards


Testing ergonomics of various trellis designs


Machine for transferring tubs of wine grapes from the vine row to a bin


Monitoring dust generated by nut harvesting


Testing a solar still for extracting salt from ag drainage brines


Biological Engineering


Testing solid state fermentation for producing biological control agents


Equipment for dispersing beneficial insects to control pests


Bioenvironmental Engineering


Pilot facility for anaerobic conversionof organic wastes


Fish production in recirculatingtank-based systems


Mechanized thinning of foreststo reduce fire danger


Fluidized bed reactor used to study combustion and gasification of biomass fuels


Tracing particles in a fluidized bed combustor


Postharvest and Food Engineering


In-field cooling of fruits and vegetables


Evaluating methods for reducing damage to fresh pears during transport


Evaluating quality of precooked pinto beans


Clam shell grill used to study heat transfer in hamburger patties


Experimenting with air impingement for heating and cooling foods


America’s Top 5 Agricultural States 1999

Cash Receipts(Dollars in Billions)

State

Rank

Value

California

1

$25.0

Texas

2

$13.2

Iowa

3

$9.8

Nebraska

4

$8.7

Kanas

5

$7.5


California Agriculture Farm Gate Values in 1999: 26.7 Billions


California Agriculture (2002)

  • Leading commodities (billion $):

    • Milk (3.8)

    • Grapes (2.6)

    • Nursery(2.3)

    • Lettuce(1.3)

    • Cattle(1.2)

    • Almonds(1.2)

    • Strawberries(1.0)


Irrigation water is usually plentiful and high quality. Sources of water include Sacramento River, irrigation districts with canal delivery systems from dam sources and deep wells.


The soil in this Salinas Valley field is being prepared for one of many cool season vegetable crops grown here.

Salinas - Monterey Area Agriculture

Cool season

Celery

Mechanization

Cauliflower


San Joaquin Valley Agriculture


San Joaquin Valley Agriculture

Lettuce

Carrot

Strawberry

Sweet corn


The Department of Viticulture and Enology at UC Davis is a research and teaching institution. One of our missions is to help wine and grape scientists worldwide address questions that have no known or well established answers. Our goal is to help improve the quality and value of grapes, raisins and wine for consumers by the application of new information and a better understanding of grape and wine qualities.

Quality grape growing is key to making quality wine.


New Infrared Heating Technology for Processing and Drying Foods and Agricultural Products


Needs

  • Need alternative drying technologies

    • Improve process and energy efficiencies

    • Reduce production costs

    • Improve product quality

    • Environmentally sound


Possible Solutions

  • Infrared radiant heat transfer is often more efficient than convective heat transfer

  • Limited uses of infrared radiation in food and agricultural processing


Principles of Infrared

  • Infrared radiation – Electromagnetic wave

Electromagnetic spectrum


Principles of Infrared

Peak wavelengths and temperatures of a blackbody


Spectrum of Water


Infrared Emitters

  • Electric infrared emitters

    • infrared bulbs, infrared tubes, or heat lamps

  • Gas infrared emitters

    • Natural gas and propane gas

      • Catalytic infrared emitter (CIR)

        • Produced virtually no volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOX)


Infrared Heating Technology (cont.)

  • Infrared drying

    • High efficiency and product quality

    • Rice, fruits and vegetables

  • Infrared dry-blanching

    • High efficiency and product quality, no waste water

    • Fruits and vegetables

  • Infrared disinfestation

    • Retain product quality

    • Rice

  • Fruit and vegetable based chips

    • Healthy food products


Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion

Catalytic

Flameless Gas

Infrared Drier

(CFGIR)


Heating Methods

Continuous heating

Intermittent heating

Fixed heating cycle

Variable heating cycle

Recirculation fan on

Recirculation fan off

Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion


Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion

Color Comparison

CFGIR

Retail


Infrared Radiation Drying - Strawberry

IR Hot Air


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Exhaust air

Pressure gauge

CFG IR emitter

Flow meter

Natural gas

Fresh air in

Solenoid valve

Air recirculation

Thermocouples

Data acquisition and control

Vibrating bottom

Rice

CIR Dryer


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Rice Temperature


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Rice Drying Rate


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Rice Moisture Change


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Rice Quality – Head Rice Yield

T – Tempering

NT – No Tempering


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice


DisinfestationResults – Heating rate


Disinfestation Results – Incubation Test


Results – Disinfestation


Results – Rice Quality


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

Infrared Blancher/dryer


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

Simultaneous Blanching and Dehydration of Pears


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Apple samples

4.5min

5min

5.5min

4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Texture of IDB and Steam Blanched Apple Samples


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Pear samples

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Pear samples

Heating rates of pear slices by IDB and 75°C steam blanching


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Carrots

Control 2min 3min 4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

(15mm in Diameter)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Cut corn (corn kernels)

Control 1min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • French Fries

Control 3.5min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times


Infrared Heating Facilities

Electric vacuum infrared dryer


Infrared Heating Facilities

Catalytic infrared dryer/blancher


Infrared Heating Facilities

Infrared and hot air dryer


  • Dehydration of fruits and vegetables

  • Dehydration of fruits and vegetables

  • Pretreatment of dehydro-frozen products

  • Toasting and roasting of food products

  • Fasting cooking of food products

  • Disinfection and disinfestations of feeds, foods and agricultural products

  • Drying of pet foods and agricultural and food products

Potential Applications


Expaned Fruit and Vetetable Products

100% Bread Fruit Product


Improvement of Rice Sample Milling


Fruit and Vegetable Films


Ultrasonic Aided Extraction Processing

Fish gelatin extraction from fish skin


Value-added Ag. and By-product Processing

Rice straw particleboard with rice bran based adhesive

Saline wood and grass based particleboard


Thank You


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