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New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables. Zhongli Pan Ph.D. USDA ARS WRRC Univ. of California, Davis. University of California - Locations. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego San Francisco Santa Barbara Santa Cruz.

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zhongli pan ph d usda ars wrrc univ of california davis

New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables

Zhongli Pan Ph.D.

USDA ARS WRRC

Univ. of California, Davis

university of california locations
University of California - Locations
  • Berkeley
  • Davis
  • Irvine
  • Los Angeles
  • Merced
  • Riverside
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • Santa Barbara
  • Santa Cruz
university of california profiles
University of California - Profiles
  • Chartered in 1868
  • 10 Campuses
    • Five medical schools and teaching hospitals
    • Three law schools
  • Three National Labs
  • Two Centers
  • 45 Nobel Prizes (12 of them since 1995)
  • 320 members of the National Academy of Sciences
  • More UC academic programs are rated among top 10 than other universities
  • 42,000 graduates each year, including 7.5% of the nation’s Ph.D.
  • Total 970,000 living alumni
university of california profiles1
University of California - Profiles
  • Enrollment (fall 2001)
    • Total 183,355
      • Undergraduate 141,366
      • Graduate 41,989
    • UC Extension enrollment 44,102
  • Budget
    • Total $14 billion
      • State of California 26%
      • Gifts, grants and contracts 23%
      • Medical centers 19%
      • Student tuition and fees 11%
      • Education activities 9%
      • Auxiliary enterprises 6%
      • Other sources 6%
university of california davis
University of California - Davis
  • Established 1908
  • Nation’s top 12 public universities.
  • School of Veterinary Medicine - No. 1.
  • International leader in agricultural, biotechnological and environmental science
  • Enrollment
    • Undergraduate 19,460
    • Graduate 5,632
    • Total 25,092
  • 900 Teaching Faculty (FTE)
  • 1700 Research Faculty (FTE)
  • 14000 Other Staff (FTE)
biological and agricultural engineering
Biological and Agricultural Engineering
  • 30 faculty members
    • Including 10 joint appointees
    • Strong ties w/ Food Science & Technology
  • 20 staff members
  • 180 undergraduate students
  • 50 graduate students
undergraduate specializations
Undergraduate Specializations

·      Agricultural engineering

·   Aquacultural engineering

·      Biomechanical/Premedical/engineering*

·      Biotechnical engineering*

·      Ecological systems engineering

·      Food engineering

·      Forest engineering

* most student interest is in these two areas

undergraduate minors in the college of agricultural and environmental sciences
Undergraduate Minors(in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences)
  • Applied Biological Systems Technology
    • 0-1 graduate per year
  • Geographic Information Systems
    • 5-10 graduates per year
  • Precision Agriculture
    • 0-1 graduate per year
differential gps
Differential GPS

Base

Station

Differential Correction

slide20

Displacement sensor

Radar

Load cell

Moisture Sensor

Standard tine

Texture/soil Compaction Sensor

D = f (Geometry,

Speed,

Depth,

Bulk Density,

Texture, and

Moisture Content)

measurement of soil water suction and water content
Measurement of Soil Water Suction and Water Content

Temperature sensor

sensor

Watermark sensor

slide47

America’s Top 5 Agricultural States 1999

Cash Receipts(Dollars in Billions)

State

Rank

Value

California

1

$25.0

Texas

2

$13.2

Iowa

3

$9.8

Nebraska

4

$8.7

Kanas

5

$7.5

california agriculture 2002
California Agriculture (2002)
  • Leading commodities (billion $):
    • Milk (3.8)
    • Grapes (2.6)
    • Nursery (2.3)
    • Lettuce (1.3)
    • Cattle (1.2)
    • Almonds (1.2)
    • Strawberries (1.0)
slide50

Irrigation water is usually plentiful and high quality. Sources of water include Sacramento River, irrigation districts with canal delivery systems from dam sources and deep wells.

slide51

The soil in this Salinas Valley field is being prepared for one of many cool season vegetable crops grown here.

Salinas - Monterey Area Agriculture

Cool season

Celery

Mechanization

Cauliflower

slide53

San Joaquin Valley Agriculture

Lettuce

Carrot

Strawberry

Sweet corn

slide56

The Department of Viticulture and Enology at UC Davis is a research and teaching institution. One of our missions is to help wine and grape scientists worldwide address questions that have no known or well established answers. Our goal is to help improve the quality and value of grapes, raisins and wine for consumers by the application of new information and a better understanding of grape and wine qualities.

Quality grape growing is key to making quality wine.

slide58

Needs

  • Need alternative drying technologies
    • Improve process and energy efficiencies
    • Reduce production costs
    • Improve product quality
    • Environmentally sound
slide59

Possible Solutions

  • Infrared radiant heat transfer is often more efficient than convective heat transfer
  • Limited uses of infrared radiation in food and agricultural processing
slide60

Principles of Infrared

  • Infrared radiation – Electromagnetic wave

Electromagnetic spectrum

slide61

Principles of Infrared

Peak wavelengths and temperatures of a blackbody

slide63

Infrared Emitters

  • Electric infrared emitters
    • infrared bulbs, infrared tubes, or heat lamps
  • Gas infrared emitters
    • Natural gas and propane gas
      • Catalytic infrared emitter (CIR)
        • Produced virtually no volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOX)
slide64

Infrared Heating Technology (cont.)

  • Infrared drying
    • High efficiency and product quality
    • Rice, fruits and vegetables
  • Infrared dry-blanching
    • High efficiency and product quality, no waste water
    • Fruits and vegetables
  • Infrared disinfestation
    • Retain product quality
    • Rice
  • Fruit and vegetable based chips
    • Healthy food products
slide65

Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion

Catalytic

Flameless Gas

Infrared Drier

(CFGIR)

slide66
Heating Methods

Continuous heating

Intermittent heating

Fixed heating cycle

Variable heating cycle

Recirculation fan on

Recirculation fan off

Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion

slide67

Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion

Color Comparison

CFGIR

Retail

slide69

Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Exhaust air

Pressure gauge

CFG IR emitter

Flow meter

Natural gas

Fresh air in

Solenoid valve

Air recirculation

Thermocouples

Data acquisition and control

Vibrating bottom

Rice

CIR Dryer

slide73

Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice

Rice Quality – Head Rice Yield

T – Tempering

NT – No Tempering

slide79

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

Infrared Blancher/dryer

slide80

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

Simultaneous Blanching and Dehydration of Pears

slide81

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Apple samples

4.5min

5min

5.5min

4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)

slide82

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Texture of IDB and Steam Blanched Apple Samples
slide83

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Pear samples

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)

slide84

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Pear samples

Heating rates of pear slices by IDB and 75°C steam blanching

slide85

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Carrots

Control 2min 3min 4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

(15mm in Diameter)

slide86

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • Cut corn (corn kernels)

Control 1min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

slide87

Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB)

  • French Fries

Control 3.5min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

slide88

Infrared Heating Facilities

Electric vacuum infrared dryer

slide89

Infrared Heating Facilities

Catalytic infrared dryer/blancher

slide90

Infrared Heating Facilities

Infrared and hot air dryer

slide91

Dehydration of fruits and vegetables

  • Dehydration of fruits and vegetables
  • Pretreatment of dehydro-frozen products
  • Toasting and roasting of food products
  • Fasting cooking of food products
  • Disinfection and disinfestations of feeds, foods and agricultural products
  • Drying of pet foods and agricultural and food products

Potential Applications

slide92

Expaned Fruit and Vetetable Products

100% Bread Fruit Product

slide95

Ultrasonic Aided Extraction Processing

Fish gelatin extraction from fish skin

slide96

Value-added Ag. and By-product Processing

Rice straw particleboard with rice bran based adhesive

Saline wood and grass based particleboard

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