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New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables. Zhongli Pan Ph.D. USDA ARS WRRC Univ. of California, Davis. University of California - Locations. Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego San Francisco Santa Barbara Santa Cruz.

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Zhongli pan ph d usda ars wrrc univ of california davis

New Production and Processing Technologies for Fruits and Vegetables

Zhongli Pan Ph.D.

USDA ARS WRRC

Univ. of California, Davis


University of california locations
University of California - Locations Vegetables

  • Berkeley

  • Davis

  • Irvine

  • Los Angeles

  • Merced

  • Riverside

  • San Diego

  • San Francisco

  • Santa Barbara

  • Santa Cruz


University of california profiles
University of California - Profiles Vegetables

  • Chartered in 1868

  • 10 Campuses

    • Five medical schools and teaching hospitals

    • Three law schools

  • Three National Labs

  • Two Centers

  • 45 Nobel Prizes (12 of them since 1995)

  • 320 members of the National Academy of Sciences

  • More UC academic programs are rated among top 10 than other universities

  • 42,000 graduates each year, including 7.5% of the nation’s Ph.D.

  • Total 970,000 living alumni


University of california profiles1
University of California - Profiles Vegetables

  • Enrollment (fall 2001)

    • Total 183,355

      • Undergraduate 141,366

      • Graduate 41,989

    • UC Extension enrollment 44,102

  • Budget

    • Total $14 billion

      • State of California 26%

      • Gifts, grants and contracts 23%

      • Medical centers 19%

      • Student tuition and fees 11%

      • Education activities 9%

      • Auxiliary enterprises 6%

      • Other sources 6%


University of california davis
University of California - Davis Vegetables

  • Established 1908

  • Nation’s top 12 public universities.

  • School of Veterinary Medicine - No. 1.

  • International leader in agricultural, biotechnological and environmental science

  • Enrollment

    • Undergraduate 19,460

    • Graduate 5,632

    • Total 25,092

  • 900 Teaching Faculty (FTE)

  • 1700 Research Faculty (FTE)

  • 14000 Other Staff (FTE)




Biological and agricultural engineering
Biological and Agricultural Engineering Vegetables

  • 30 faculty members

    • Including 10 joint appointees

    • Strong ties w/ Food Science & Technology

  • 20 staff members

  • 180 undergraduate students

  • 50 graduate students


Undergraduate major biological systems engineering
Undergraduate Major: VegetablesBiological Systems Engineering


Undergraduate specializations
Undergraduate Specializations Vegetables

·      Agricultural engineering

·   Aquacultural engineering

·      Biomechanical/Premedical/engineering*

·      Biotechnical engineering*

·      Ecological systems engineering

·      Food engineering

·      Forest engineering

* most student interest is in these two areas


Undergraduate minors in the college of agricultural and environmental sciences
Undergraduate Minors Vegetables(in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences)

  • Applied Biological Systems Technology

    • 0-1 graduate per year

  • Geographic Information Systems

    • 5-10 graduates per year

  • Precision Agriculture

    • 0-1 graduate per year


Graduate program biological systems engineering
Graduate Program: VegetablesBiological Systems Engineering





Differential gps
Differential GPS Vegetables

Base

Station

Differential Correction




Displacement sensor Vegetables

Radar

Load cell

Moisture Sensor

Standard tine

Texture/soil Compaction Sensor

D = f (Geometry,

Speed,

Depth,

Bulk Density,

Texture, and

Moisture Content)


Measurement of soil water suction and water content
Measurement of Soil Water Suction and Water Content Vegetables

Temperature sensor

sensor

Watermark sensor













Pilot facility for anaerobic conversion of organic wastes
Pilot facility for anaerobic conversion control agentsof organic wastes


Fish production in recirculating tank based systems
Fish production in recirculating control agentstank-based systems


Mechanized thinning of forests to reduce fire danger
Mechanized thinning of forests control agentsto reduce fire danger



Tracing particles in a fluidized bed combustor
Tracing particles in a fluidized bed combustor gasification of biomass fuels


Postharvest and food engineering

Postharvest and gasification of biomass fuelsFood Engineering


In field cooling of fruits and vegetables
In-field cooling of fruits and vegetables gasification of biomass fuels


Evaluating methods for reducing damage to fresh pears during transport
Evaluating methods for reducing damage gasification of biomass fuelsto fresh pears during transport


Evaluating quality of precooked pinto beans
Evaluating quality of precooked pinto beans gasification of biomass fuels



Experimenting with air impingement for heating and cooling foods
Experimenting with air impingement pattiesfor heating and cooling foods


America’s Top 5 Agricultural States 1999 patties

Cash Receipts(Dollars in Billions)

State

Rank

Value

California

1

$25.0

Texas

2

$13.2

Iowa

3

$9.8

Nebraska

4

$8.7

Kanas

5

$7.5



California agriculture 2002
California Agriculture Billions(2002)

  • Leading commodities (billion $):

    • Milk (3.8)

    • Grapes (2.6)

    • Nursery (2.3)

    • Lettuce (1.3)

    • Cattle (1.2)

    • Almonds (1.2)

    • Strawberries (1.0)


Irrigation water is usually plentiful and high quality. Sources of water include Sacramento River, irrigation districts with canal delivery systems from dam sources and deep wells.


The soil in this Salinas Valley field is being prepared for one of many cool season vegetable crops grown here.

Salinas - Monterey Area Agriculture

Cool season

Celery

Mechanization

Cauliflower


San Joaquin Valley Agriculture one of many cool season vegetable crops grown here.


San Joaquin Valley Agriculture one of many cool season vegetable crops grown here.

Lettuce

Carrot

Strawberry

Sweet corn


The Department of Viticulture and Enology at UC Davis is a research and teaching institution. One of our missions is to help wine and grape scientists worldwide address questions that have no known or well established answers. Our goal is to help improve the quality and value of grapes, raisins and wine for consumers by the application of new information and a better understanding of grape and wine qualities.

Quality grape growing is key to making quality wine.



Needs Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Need alternative drying technologies

    • Improve process and energy efficiencies

    • Reduce production costs

    • Improve product quality

    • Environmentally sound


Possible Solutions Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Infrared radiant heat transfer is often more efficient than convective heat transfer

  • Limited uses of infrared radiation in food and agricultural processing


Principles of Infrared Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Infrared radiation – Electromagnetic wave

Electromagnetic spectrum


Principles of Infrared Foods and Agricultural Products

Peak wavelengths and temperatures of a blackbody


Spectrum of Water Foods and Agricultural Products


Infrared Emitters Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Electric infrared emitters

    • infrared bulbs, infrared tubes, or heat lamps

  • Gas infrared emitters

    • Natural gas and propane gas

      • Catalytic infrared emitter (CIR)

        • Produced virtually no volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOX)


Infrared Heating Technology (cont.) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Infrared drying

    • High efficiency and product quality

    • Rice, fruits and vegetables

  • Infrared dry-blanching

    • High efficiency and product quality, no waste water

    • Fruits and vegetables

  • Infrared disinfestation

    • Retain product quality

    • Rice

  • Fruit and vegetable based chips

    • Healthy food products


Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion Foods and Agricultural Products

Catalytic

Flameless Gas

Infrared Drier

(CFGIR)


Heating Methods Foods and Agricultural Products

Continuous heating

Intermittent heating

Fixed heating cycle

Variable heating cycle

Recirculation fan on

Recirculation fan off

Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion


Infrared Radiation Drying - Onion Foods and Agricultural Products

Color Comparison

CFGIR

Retail


Infrared Radiation Drying - Strawberry Foods and Agricultural Products

IR Hot Air


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products

Exhaust air

Pressure gauge

CFG IR emitter

Flow meter

Natural gas

Fresh air in

Solenoid valve

Air recirculation

Thermocouples

Data acquisition and control

Vibrating bottom

Rice

CIR Dryer


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products

Rice Temperature


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products

Rice Drying Rate


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products

Rice Moisture Change


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products

Rice Quality – Head Rice Yield

T – Tempering

NT – No Tempering


Infrared Radiation Drying - Rice Foods and Agricultural Products


Disinfestation results heating rate
Disinfestation Foods and Agricultural ProductsResults – Heating rate


Disinfestation results incubation test
Disinfestation Foods and Agricultural ProductsResults – Incubation Test


Results disinfestation
Results – Disinfestation Foods and Agricultural Products


Results rice quality
Results – Rice Quality Foods and Agricultural Products


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

Infrared Blancher/dryer


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

Simultaneous Blanching and Dehydration of Pears


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Apple samples

4.5min

5min

5.5min

4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Texture of IDB and Steam Blanched Apple Samples


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Pear samples

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

½” (12.7mm cubes)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Pear samples

Heating rates of pear slices by IDB and 75°C steam blanching


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Carrots

Control 2min 3min 4min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times

(15mm in Diameter)


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Cut corn (corn kernels)

Control 1min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times


Infrared Dry Blanching (IDB) Foods and Agricultural Products

  • French Fries

Control 3.5min

Enzymatic (peroxidase) activity of treated with IDB for various times


Infrared Heating Facilities Foods and Agricultural Products

Electric vacuum infrared dryer


Infrared Heating Facilities Foods and Agricultural Products

Catalytic infrared dryer/blancher


Infrared Heating Facilities Foods and Agricultural Products

Infrared and hot air dryer


  • Dehydration of fruits and vegetables Foods and Agricultural Products

  • Dehydration of fruits and vegetables

  • Pretreatment of dehydro-frozen products

  • Toasting and roasting of food products

  • Fasting cooking of food products

  • Disinfection and disinfestations of feeds, foods and agricultural products

  • Drying of pet foods and agricultural and food products

Potential Applications


Expaned Fruit and Vetetable Products Foods and Agricultural Products

100% Bread Fruit Product


Improvement of Rice Sample Milling Foods and Agricultural Products


Fruit and vegetable films
Fruit and Vegetable Films Foods and Agricultural Products


Ultrasonic Aided Extraction Processing Foods and Agricultural Products

Fish gelatin extraction from fish skin


Value-added Ag. and By-product Processing Foods and Agricultural Products

Rice straw particleboard with rice bran based adhesive

Saline wood and grass based particleboard


Thank You Foods and Agricultural Products


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