Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Kathryn Oswood. What is ADHD?.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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ADHD is a condition characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity; often found in people with learning disabilities (Hallahan, et.al., 2009). It is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Symptoms may continue into adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADHD can lead to poor school/work performance, poor social relationships and a general feeling of low self esteem (Low, 2009).
There are three types of ADHD
Combined (Hallahan, et.al., 2009).
About 3-5%of preschool and school age children have ADHD or about two million children in the U.S. (Hallahan, 2009; Low, 2009).
30-70%of children with ADHD will continue to have symptoms into adolescence and adulthood (Low, 2009).
3 times more boys are diagnosed with ADHD than girls (Hallahan, 2009).
Impaired Behavioral Inhibition
The inability to…
Wait one’s turn
Recognize inappropriate responses
Refrain from responding immediately
Impaired Executive Functions
Difficulty or inability to…
Regulate behavior through inner speech
Control arousal levels
Communicate solutions to a problem to others (Hallahan, 2009).
10-25% overlap between students with ADHD and learning disabilities.
Aggressive, acting-out behaviors
Withdrawn, anxious, depressed
Anxiety is seen in 15-35% of children with ADHD (Hallahan, 2009).
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
25-50% of people with ADHD also have a form
of emotional or behavioral disorder.
Educational Considerations:Classroom Structure
Create a simple overarching daily routine that the student can learn by heart.
Number of tasks should be small and tight.
These should be displayed publically or taped to the student’s desk (Hallahan, 2009).
The student is responsible for recording their own behavior and receive consequences and reinforcements contingent on the behaviors.
Example: the student tallies how many times they get out of their seat.
The behavior of one student is tied to the whole class group-contingency plan.
Students must work together to meet a goal (Hallahan, 2009).
Educational Considerations:IEP Requirements
A student with ADHD can be considered for special education under the category Other Health Impaired (OHI).
“In instances where the ADD is a chronic or acute health problem that results in limited alertness, which adversely affects educational performance” (Hallahan, 2009).
Otherwise, it is the coexisting conditions such as academic or behavioral disorders that will qualify a student with ADHD for and IEP.
Students with ADHD can also qualify for accommodations under Section 504.
Move closer to the ADHD child when you want his/her attention.
Ask the ADHD child to do small errands/chores to redirect negative energy.
Focus on Positive Channeling
Encourage rather than criticize.
Tell them what you want them to do (not just what not to do).
Refrain from accusations.
Catch the child exhibiting positive behavior.
Shape behavior through praise.
Adjust Your Expectations
Give One-Step Directions
Ask About the Parents' Method of Discipline
Help the ADHD Child "Switch Gears" Slowly
React Calmly (Low, 2009).
Educational Considerations: Interventions
Reduce assignments and homework.
Give assignments one at a time and/or chunk assignments.
Allow extra time to complete tasks.
Allow the student to take a test or work on assignments in a quiet area free from distractions.
Provide class notes.
Assign a study buddy.
Tape record directions or lectures.
Allow frequent breaks.
Have a system of communication between parents and teachers (Low, 2009).
Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
Takes little time and focuses on one particular task.
Monitor academics, attention and behavior.
Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R)
Measures opposition, inattention, anxiety, and social problems.
Monitors treatment effects over time.
Momentary Time Sampling
An interval recording procedure to collect data on a specific behavior.
Monitors a specific behavior in brief intervals (e.g. 15 minutes can be broken into 15 intervals of 1 minute each), (Hallahan, 2009).
Low, K. (2009). Learn more about Attention Deficit Disorder. About.com Health's Disease and Condition. Retrieved from http://add.about.com/od/adhdthebasics/a/ADHDbasics.htm.
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education (222-259).Boston, MA: Pearson.
Slide 3. ADHD prevalence in U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html.
Slide 4. Focus. Welcome to ADHD 2.0. Retrieved from aldo.bucchi.googlepages.com/adhd2.jpg.
Slide 5. ADHD pie chart. The Harvard Mahoney Neuroscience Institute. Retrieved from www.hms.harvard.edu/.../Number1/Picts/ADHD1.gif.
Slide 9. Dennis the Menace. Impulsivity. Retrieved from www.adhd.org.nz.