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Statistics lecture 2

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Statistics lecture 2

Summarizing and Displaying

Measurement Data

If a study shows that daily use of a certain expensive exercise machine resulted in an average loss of 10 pounds, what more would you want to know about the numbers than just the average?

Imagine you wanted to compare the cost of living in two different cities. You get local papers and write down the rental costs of 50 apartments in each place. How would you summarize the values in order to compare the two places?

- Realize that summarizing important features of a list of numbers gives more information than just the unordered list.
- Understand the concept of the shape of a set of numbers.
- Learn how to make stemplots and histograms
- Understand summary measures like the mean and standard deviation

170, 163, 178, 163, 168, 165, 170, 155, 191, 178, 175, 185, 183, 165, 165, 180, 185, 165, 168, 152, 178, 183, 157, 165, 183, 157, 170, 168, 163, 165, 180, 163, 140, 163, 163, 163, 165, 178, 150, 170, 165, 165, 157, 165, 173, 160, 163, 165, 178, 173, 180, 196, 185, 175, 160, 168, 193, 173, 183, 165, 163, 175, 168, 160, 208, 157, 180, 170, 155, 173, 178, 170, 157, 163, 163, 180, 170, 165, 170, 170, 180, 168, 155, 175, 168, 147, 191, 178, 173, 170, 178, 185, 152, 170, 175, 178, 163, 175, 175, 165, 175, 175, 157, 163, 165, 160, 178, 152, 160, 170, 170, 160, 157,

208, 196, 193, 191, 191, 185, 185, 185, 185, 183, 183, 183, 183, 180, 180, 180, 180, 180, 180, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 173, 173, 173, 173, 173, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 160, 160, 160, 160, 160, 160, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 155, 155, 155, 152, 152, 152, 150, 147, 140

- The Center
- The Variability
- The Shape

- Mean (average): Total of the values, divided by the number of values
- Median: The middle value of an ordered list of values
- Mode: The most common value
- Outliers: Atypical values far from the center

- Average: $2,827,104
- Median: $950,000
- Mode: $327,000 (also the minimum)
- Outlier: $21.7 million (Alex Rodriguez of the NY Yankees)

Some measures of variability:

- Maximum and minimum: Largest and smallest values
- Range: The distance between the largest and smallest values
- Quartiles: The medians of each half of the ordered list of values
- Standard deviation: Think of it as the average distance of all the values from the mean.

- Don’t consider the average to be “normal”
- Variability is normal
- Anything within about 3 standard deviations of the mean is “normal”

R

A

N

G

E

125 Highest

120

110 Upper quartile

110 Interquartile

100 Median Range

90

90 Lower quartile

80

75 Lowest

- Data: 90, 90, 100, 110, 110
- Mean: 100
- Deviations from mean: -10, -10, 0, 10, 10
- Devs squared: 100, 100, 0, 100, 100
- Sum of squared devs: 400
- Sum of sq devs/(n-1): 400/4=100 (variance)
- Square root of variance: 10
Therefore, the standard deviation is 10

- Data: 50, 60, 100, 140, 150
- Mean: 100
- Deviations from mean: -50, -40, 0, 40, 50
- Devs squared: 2500, 1600, 0, 2500, 1600
- Sum of squared devs: 8200
- Sum of sq devs/(n-1):8200/4=2050 (variance)
- Square root of variance: 45.3
Therefore, the standard deviation is 45.3

The shape of a list of values will tell you important things about how the values are distributed.

To visualize the shape of a list of values, plot them using:

- a stemplot (also called stem-and-leaf)
- a histogram
- or a smooth line (next lecture)

- Divide the range into equal units, so that the first few digits can be used as the stems. (Ideally, 6-15 stems.)
- Attach a leaf, made of the next digit, to represent each data point. (Ignore any remaining digits.)

Ages in years:

42.2, 22.7, 21.2, 65.4, 29.3, 22.3, 21.5, 20.7, 29.4, 23.1, 22.9, 21.5, 21.4, 21.3, 21.3, 21.2, 21.2, 21.1, 20.8, 30.2, 25.7, 24.5, 23.2, 22.3, 22.2, 22.2, 22.2, 22.1, 21.9, 21.8, 21.7, 21.7, 21.6, 21.4, 21.3, 21.2, 21.2, 21.2, 21.2, 21.2, 21.1, 21.1, 20.8, 20.7, 20.7, 20.1, 20.0, 19.5, 35.8, 26.1, 22.3, 22.2, 21.8, 21.5, 20.4, 47.5, 45.5, 30.6, 28.1, 27.4, 26.5, 24.1, 23.3, 23.3, 22.9, 22.9, 22.6, 22.4, 22.4, 22.3, 22.3, 22.0, 21.9, 21.9, 21.8, 21.7, 21.7, 21.7, 21.6, 21.6, 21.6, 21.5, 21.5, 21.5, 21.4, 21.2, 21.2, 21.2, 21.1, 21.1, 21.0, 20.9, 20.9, 20.8, 20.8, 20.8, 20.8, 20.8, 20.6, 20.6, 20.6, 20.5, 20.5, 20.5, 20.5, 20.4, 20.4, 20.3, 20.2, 19.9, 19.6, 63.2, 55.0

19 |

20 |

21 |

22 |

23 |

19 | 5

20 | 0123444

21 | 0111112222222222

22 | 01222

23 | 12

2| (20-24)

2| (25-29)

3| (30-34)

3| (35-39)

4| (40-44)

4| (45-49)

5|(50-54)

2|000000000000001111111111111111111111111111111

11111111122222222222222222222222222223333333334

2|56677899

3|01

3|6

4|2

4|57

5|

5|5

6|3

6|5

- Shows the shape of a set of values, similar to a stemplot
- More useful for large data sets because you don’t have to enter every value
- X-axis: Range of possible values
- Y-axis: The count of each possible value

(15-19)

(15-19)

R

A

N

G

E

125 Highest

120

110 Upper quartile

110 Interquartile

100 Median Range

90

90 Lower quartile

80

75 Lowest

Median

Lower quartile Upper quartile

Lowest value Highest value

- Lowest140
- First quartile163
- Median168
- Third quartile178
- Highest208

- Women:140, 150, 152, 152, 155, 155, 155, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 157, 160, 160, 160, 160, 160, 160, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 163, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 165, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 168, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 173, 173, 173, 173, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 175, 178, 178, 180, 180, 180, 208
- Men:147, 152, 163, 165, 168, 170, 170, 170, 173, 175, 175, 175, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 178, 180, 180, 180, 183, 183, 183, 183, 185, 185, 185, 185, 191, 191, 193, 196

WomenMen

Lowest 140147

First quartile163174

Median 165178

Third quartile170183

Highest 208196

- Presidents: 67, 90, 83, 85, 73, 80, 78, 79, 68, 71, 53, 65, 74, 64, 77, 56, 66, 63, 70, 49, 56, 71, 67, 71, 58, 60, 72, 67, 57, 60, 90, 63, 88, 78, 46, 64, 81, 93
- Vice-Presidents: 90, 83, 80, 73, 70, 51, 68, 79, 70, 71, 72, 74, 67, 54, 81, 66, 62, 63, 68, 57, 66, 96, 78, 55, 60, 66, 57, 71, 60, 85, 76, 8, 77, 88, 78, 81, 64, 66, 70

Presidents Vice-Presidents

Lowest age4651

Lower quartile6364

Median age6970

Upper quartile7879

Highest age9398

Perguntas?