Chapter 10 thunderstorms and tornadoes
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Chapter 10: Thunderstorms and tornadoes. Thunderstorms Tornadoes Tornadic thunderstorms Severe weather and doppler radar. Thunderstorms. Ordinary cell thunderstorms. cumulus stage mature stage dissipating stage.

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Chapter 10 thunderstorms and tornadoes
Chapter 10: Thunderstorms and tornadoes

  • Thunderstorms

  • Tornadoes

  • Tornadic thunderstorms

  • Severe weather and doppler radar



Ordinary cell thunderstorms
Ordinary cell thunderstorms

  • cumulus stage

  • mature stage

  • dissipating stage

  • Ordinary cell thunderstorms are sometimes called‘air mass thunderstorms’, because they form in conditionally unstable air masses and are not necessarilyassociated with fronts or severe weather


Severe thunderstorms and the supercell
Severe thunderstorms and the supercell

  • multicell storms

  • supercell


Squall lines and mesoscale convective complexes
Squall lines and mesoscale convective complexes

  • multicell thunderstorm

  • squall line

  • mesoscale convective complex


Dryline thunderstorms
Dryline thunderstorms

  • dryline

  • these storms occur frequently in the southernGreat Plains of the US


Gust fronts microbursts and derechoes
Gust fronts, microbursts and derechoes

  • gust front

  • shelf cloud and roll cloud

  • outflow boundary

  • downbursts and microbursts

  • derecho

  • Microbursts present a severe hazard to aircraft, especially during takeoff and landing

  • Several airports have installed microburst detection instruments



Distribution of thunderstorms
Distribution of thunderstorms

  • combination of warmth and moisture

  • geographical placement

  • “Tornado Alley” is home to most of the world’s tornadoes


Lightning and thunder
Lightning and thunder

  • lightning

  • thunder

  • According to the Guinness Book of World Records,Roy Sullivan holds the world’s record for being struckby lightning seven times between 1942 and his deathin 1983.


Electrification of clouds
Electrification of clouds

  • electrical charges in clouds

  • relationships of updrafts and downdrafts to electrical charges


The lightning stroke
The lightning stroke

  • cloud-to-ground lightning

  • stepped leader

  • return stroke

  • dart leader


Types of lightning
Types of lightning

  • forked lightning

  • ribbon lightning

  • dry lightning

  • heat lightning

  • St. Elmo’s fire

  • “heat lightning” isn’t really any different thanordinary lightning


Lightning detection and suppression
Lightning detection and suppression

  • lightning direction-finder



Tornado life cycles
Tornado life cycles

  • tornado

  • funnel cloud

  • dust-whirl stage

  • mature stage


Tornado outbreaks
Tornado outbreaks

  • tornado families

  • tornado outbreaks

  • Much ground-breaking research on tornadoes wasconducted by Professor Ted Fujita of the Universityof Chicago. The “F-scale” of tornado intensity wasnamed after him.


Tornado occurrence
Tornado occurrence

  • tornado alley

  • time of day

  • times of year


Tornado winds
Tornado winds

  • multi-vortex tornadoes

  • suction vortices


Seeking shelter
Seeking shelter

  • tornado watch

  • tornado warning

  • It’s always a good idea to know what to do if a tornado watch or warning is issued for your area


The fujita scale
The Fujita scale

  • tornado classification based on damage



Supercell tornadoes
Supercell tornadoes

  • mesocyclones

  • bounded weak echo region

  • hook echo

  • rotating clouds

  • wall cloud

  • A rotating wall cloud is an unforgettable sight - justask a successful storm chaser


Nonsupercell tornadoes
Nonsupercell tornadoes

  • gustnadoes

  • landspouts

  • cold air funnels



Severe weather and doppler radar1
Severe weather and Doppler radar

  • Doppler shift

  • tornado vortex signature

  • Doppler lidar

  • NEXRAD

  • waterspout

  • Many cities in the US have multiple Doppler radars,operated by television station weather centers


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