Chapter 10 thunderstorms and tornadoes
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Chapter 10: Thunderstorms and tornadoes. Thunderstorms Tornadoes Tornadic thunderstorms Severe weather and doppler radar. Thunderstorms. Ordinary cell thunderstorms. cumulus stage mature stage dissipating stage.

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Chapter 10: Thunderstorms and tornadoes

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Chapter 10: Thunderstorms and tornadoes

  • Thunderstorms

  • Tornadoes

  • Tornadic thunderstorms

  • Severe weather and doppler radar


Thunderstorms


Ordinary cell thunderstorms

  • cumulus stage

  • mature stage

  • dissipating stage

  • Ordinary cell thunderstorms are sometimes called‘air mass thunderstorms’, because they form in conditionally unstable air masses and are not necessarilyassociated with fronts or severe weather


Severe thunderstorms and the supercell

  • multicell storms

  • supercell


Squall lines and mesoscale convective complexes

  • multicell thunderstorm

  • squall line

  • mesoscale convective complex


Dryline thunderstorms

  • dryline

  • these storms occur frequently in the southernGreat Plains of the US


Gust fronts, microbursts and derechoes

  • gust front

  • shelf cloud and roll cloud

  • outflow boundary

  • downbursts and microbursts

  • derecho

  • Microbursts present a severe hazard to aircraft, especially during takeoff and landing

  • Several airports have installed microburst detection instruments


Floods and flash floods

  • flash floods


Distribution of thunderstorms

  • combination of warmth and moisture

  • geographical placement

  • “Tornado Alley” is home to most of the world’s tornadoes


Lightning and thunder

  • lightning

  • thunder

  • According to the Guinness Book of World Records,Roy Sullivan holds the world’s record for being struckby lightning seven times between 1942 and his deathin 1983.


Electrification of clouds

  • electrical charges in clouds

  • relationships of updrafts and downdrafts to electrical charges


The lightning stroke

  • cloud-to-ground lightning

  • stepped leader

  • return stroke

  • dart leader


Types of lightning

  • forked lightning

  • ribbon lightning

  • dry lightning

  • heat lightning

  • St. Elmo’s fire

  • “heat lightning” isn’t really any different thanordinary lightning


Lightning detection and suppression

  • lightning direction-finder


Tornadoes


Tornado life cycles

  • tornado

  • funnel cloud

  • dust-whirl stage

  • mature stage


Tornado outbreaks

  • tornado families

  • tornado outbreaks

  • Much ground-breaking research on tornadoes wasconducted by Professor Ted Fujita of the Universityof Chicago. The “F-scale” of tornado intensity wasnamed after him.


Tornado occurrence

  • tornado alley

  • time of day

  • times of year


Tornado winds

  • multi-vortex tornadoes

  • suction vortices


Seeking shelter

  • tornado watch

  • tornado warning

  • It’s always a good idea to know what to do if a tornado watch or warning is issued for your area


The Fujita scale

  • tornado classification based on damage


Tornadic thunderstorms


Supercell tornadoes

  • mesocyclones

  • bounded weak echo region

  • hook echo

  • rotating clouds

  • wall cloud

  • A rotating wall cloud is an unforgettable sight - justask a successful storm chaser


Nonsupercell tornadoes

  • gustnadoes

  • landspouts

  • cold air funnels


Severe weather and Doppler radar


Severe weather and Doppler radar

  • Doppler shift

  • tornado vortex signature

  • Doppler lidar

  • NEXRAD

  • waterspout

  • Many cities in the US have multiple Doppler radars,operated by television station weather centers


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