The Impact of Contemporary Women's Movements in Multicultural Europe Beatrice Halsaa Senter for tverrfaglig kjønnsforskning Universitetet i Oslo Foredrag på Kvinnekonferanse 2013 - 100 år med rett til å stemme Universitetet i Tromsø 28-30 august. The FEMCIT project 2007-1011:
The Impact of Contemporary Women's Movements in Multicultural Europe
Senter for tverrfagligkjønnsforskning
Kvinnekonferanse 2013 - 100 år med rett til å stemme
UniversitetetiTromsø 28-30 august
The FEMCIT project 2007-1011:
financed by the EU
comprehensive research in 13 European states, covering the North, East, West and South
covering the period from the late 1960s
But there is no indication that as yet, despite its enormous growth, the organized women’s liberation movement can claim more than nuisance value
Women’s liberation movement is, in concept and organization, the most public revolutionary movement ever to have existed. It is able to make the most revolutionary statements in public without anyone seeming bothered
Juliet Mitchell (1973): Women’s Estate
The impact of women’s movements:
women’s movements change, and do not have porous borders,
women’s movements are not the only actors, thus
impactcannot easily be separated from the impact of other social movements, of media, public policies etc.
it matters if you assess short or long-time impact, and
movement impact is related to political opportunities, timing, and last but not least specific issue.
Impact on everyday life and women’s self-esteem matters.
Virginia Woolf in A Room of One’s Own:
"Women have served all these centuries as looking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size. (…) That serves to explain in part the necessity that women so often are to men. (…) How is he to go on giving judgement, civilizing natives, making laws, writing books, dressing up and speechifying at banquets, unless he can see himself at breakfast and at dinner at least twice the size he really is?"
Hilde Danielsen (red.) 2013 (Whenthe personal becamepoltical. The newwomen- and men’smovement in the 1970’s)
Runa Haukaa, authorof «Bak slagordene»,
Norway, from 1982.
The first and onlycomprehensive
Foto: Nina S. Strand,
FEMCIT: Gendered Citizenship in Multicultural Europe: The Impact of Contemporary Women’s Movements 2007-2011
comprehensive comparative research
Demands, practices and impact of women’s movements activism
6 dimensions of citizenship: intimate, bodily, multicultural, social, economic and political
21 sub-projects on selected feminist issues
ethnicity/racialization as a cross-cutting issue
New understandings, overall assessments, policy input and recommendations
Contemporary Women’s movements: Citizenship claims and practices
Result of the feminist movement’s efforts since 1993
A 'pioneering' law:
Impact on law and policy – a continuum:
Access impact: new voices are being listened to: YES
Agenda impact: new demands on the political agenda; YES
Policy impact: adoption of legislation or policy in line with demands; YES
Output impact: measures to ensure the new legislation – ??
Full impact: when/ if the underlying hardships are removed or lessened - NO
FEMCIT has explored
women’s movements mobilisation and organizations
women’s movements claims and frames
women’s movements impact/ resonance/ transformations
for individual citizens; civil society, policy-making
on selected issues in selected countries
FEMCIT PhDcourse in Prague
Abortion rights advocates gather in Smith Park in Jackson, Mississippi, to rally support for a woman's right to an abortion, Saturday, July 15, 2006. (AP Photo/Rogelio V. Solis)
Measures to reduce the “double burden” that limits women’s access to full economic citizenship have been largely predicated on the “activation” of women workers through the “commodification” of care services to households with (elderly) care needs. - the family 'going public' (Hernes, 1987:135)
A “win-win” scenario of the “de-gendered” universal citizen worker paradigm?
Or producing new forms of segregation between “minoritized” and “majoritized” women on the labour market?
In all of the countries studied in FEMCIT economic citizenship group (France, Poland, Norway), migrant and “minoritized” social groups face a series of obstacles in gaining access to economic citizenship rights on the same basis as majority groups
From an art exhibition, Holsmbu, Norway
The legacy of women’s movements:
Transformations of culture; everyday life
new norms and practices of mothering, parenting, intimacy
new notions and cultural expressions
Access for women - procedural changes
access to employment, to political and religious institutions, education etc.
Policy changes - substantive changes
gender equality policies, mainstreaming, quotas, abortion on demand, gender research etc.