Science 30 Chemistry . Chapter 2: Chemical legacy of human activity. Body Chemistry. 2.1- Organic compounds. 3 main types of organic compounds: Alkanes – single bonds, saturated. General formula C n H 2n+2 Alkenes- double bonds, unsaturated. General formula C n H 2n
Chapter 2: Chemical legacy of human activity.
- If a double or triple bond, number closest to the bond.
4. Put names together in this order: position #, branch, parent chain
CH = C-CH2-CH2-CH3
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fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
CFC’s (ChloroFluoroCarbons formed from carbon and halogens) are products common in air conditioners, aerosols, solvents and styrofoam packaging. These products make their way to the upper atmosphere and break ozone down.
Cl + O3 = ClO + O2 ClO + O = Cl + O2
A single chlorine atom removes about 100,000 ozone molecules before it is taken out of operation by other substances.
The chemical formula for ozone is O3. It can be produced in the upper atmosphere when UV rays strike O2.
O2 + UV -> O + O (1)
O + O2 -> O3(2)
Ozone is also continually being broken down by UV rays.
O3 + UV-> O2 + O (3)
O + O3 -> O2 + O2(4)
A balance between these two reactions has resulted in a layer of ozone surrounding the planet.
These reactions are responsible for absorption of 97-99% of the sun's high frequency UV waves..
Ultraviolet light is light with wavelengths between 150 and 300nm
UV-B radiation exposure causes increased cancer, eye cataracts, weakened immune system and reduced plant yields.
"There has been a great deal of recent attention to the suspected increase in amphibian deformities. However, most reports have been anecdotal, and no experiment in the field under natural conditions had been performed previously,"
Even though the ozone is being destroyed naturally, it is disappearing faster than possible without other factors influencing it.
The first global agreement to restrict CFCs came with the signing of the MONTREAL PROTOCOL in 1987 ultimately aiming to reduce them by half by the year 2000. The main CFCs will not be produced by any of the signing countries after the end of 1995, except for a limited amount for essential uses, such as for medical sprays.