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Candy: What is Moderate Consumption ?. Laura Shumow , MHS Director of Scientific and Regulatory Affairs. National Confectioners Association. Major association representing the U.S. confectionery industry – small and large companies since 1884

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candy what is moderate consumption

Candy: What is Moderate Consumption?

Laura Shumow, MHS

Director of Scientific and Regulatory Affairs

national confectioners association
National Confectioners Association
  • Major association representing the U.S. confectionery industry – small and large companies since 1884
  • Education and leadership in manufacturing, technical research, public relations, retailing practices, government relations, and statistical analyses
  • Committed to science-based evidence and educational resourcesto convey role of candy as a treat in a healthy lifestyle
candy in history culture
Candy in History & Culture
  • Earliest confections date back to antiquity
  • Cocoa used by Mayans >2000 years ago
  • Celebratory food often given as a gift and part of holidays/traditions
cross sectional analyses of candy consumption and health
Cross-Sectional Analyses of Candy Consumption and Health

Studies of more than 15,000 U.S. adults and 11,000 children and adolescents from NHANES data showed no association between candy intake with:

  • increased weight/body mass index
  • risk factors for heart disease (blood pressure, blood lipids, etc)
  • Risk factors for diabetes/metabolic syndrome (glucose levels, CRP, etc)

O\'Neil CE, Fulgoni VL, Nicklas TA. Association of Candy Consumption with Body Weight Measures, Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, and Diet Quality in U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2004. Nutrition Research, 2011. 31(2):122-130.

O\'Neil CE, Fulgoni VL, Nicklas TA. Association of Candy Consumption with Body Weight Measures, Other Health Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Diet Quality in U.S. Children and Adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004. Food Nutr Res. 2011;55. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5794 

cross sectional analyses of candy consumption frequency and health
Cross-Sectional Analyses of Candy Consumption Frequency and Health
  • A 2012 study of >1,000 healthy people published in Archives of Internal Medicine showed men and women who ate chocolate more frequently had a lower BMI than those who ate chocolate less often.
  • In 2013, a Nutrition Journal publication showed that frequency of total candy consumed by adults was not associated with risk of obesity/overweight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels or markers of insulin resistance

Golombet al. Association between More Frequent Chocolate Consumption and Lower Body Mass Index. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(6):519-521

Murphy et al. Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption. Nutr J. 2013; 12 (1): 53.

slide7
Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study

The objective of this study was to determine whether candy consumption in childhood was predictive of the presence of adverse levels of CVRF, including weight/adiposity measures, in young adulthood.

  • O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Liu Y, Berenson GS. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures, or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013. (E-pub before print).
study methodology
Study Methodology
  • Candy (g/d) consumption at baseline and from the first follow-up survey was obtained from one day 24-hr dietary recall
  • Candy consumption from the second follow-up was obtained via a food frequency questionnaire.
  • Separate linear mixed models were used to detect relationships between candy at baseline and health biomarkers at follow-up.
conclusions implications
Conclusions & Implications
  • Levels of candy consumption reported by this study population were not predictive of CVRF.
  • Consumption of nutrient dense foods consistent with dietary recommendations are important, but foods like candy can be added to the diet, in modest amounts, without potential adverse long term health consequences.
  • More studies are need to confirm these results.
moderation vs deprivation
Moderation vs Deprivation

Research suggests that forbidding certain foods may be counterproductive

Dieting and restrained eating may lead to overeating and poor body weight control in children and adults

It is more productive to promote moderation rather than restriction

slide16

Ongoing Research on

Candy Restriction

  • Penn State study evaluating the effects of parental practices regarding candy
    • Preliminary results show that parental restriction of candy is associated with children’s lower self-regulatory control
    • Studying strategies to promote consumption of candy in moderation
  • Trial on the impact of chocolate restriction on consumption at Purdue in adults
slide17

Identifying Strategies to Promote Moderate Consumption

  • Individual tactics - mindfulness, distraction techniques
  • Package size, food environment
  • Parental tactics – “limit setting” as opposed to restriction
educational tools to promote moderation
Educational Tools toPromote Moderation

www.candyusa.com/treatright

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