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美国 学校心理咨询与辅导 School Counseling & Guidance

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美国 学校心理咨询与辅导 School Counseling & Guidance. 胡晓路 美国加州圣荷西州立大学心理咨询教育系 Xiaolu Hu San Jose State University July 2014. [email protected] K-12 Reform in the President‘s 2014 Budget 美国教育教育 重点.

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school counseling guidance

美国学校心理咨询与辅导School Counseling & Guidance

胡晓路

美国加州圣荷西州立大学心理咨询教育系

Xiaolu Hu

San Jose State University

July 2014

[email protected]

k 12 reform in the president s 2014 budget
K-12 Reform in the President‘s 2014 Budget美国教育教育重点

Building on this momentum, President Obama has proposed to deepen reforms through significant new investments in strategic areas where states and school districts face key implementation challenges, and to continue substantial investments in critical formula programs that support state and local reform efforts. The President\'s budget includes the following investments:

  • High school redesign and career readiness
  • Strengthening Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education
  • Supporting effective teaching and strengthening school leadership
  • School safety
  • Turning around the lowest-performing schools
american common core initiative
American Common Core Initiative美国统一核心大纲

The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy.

州立统一核心大纲将为学生学习提供一个一致的,清晰的标准,也可以让老师和家长知道他们需要如何帮助学生学习。该大纲的设计志在加强和更新与现实世界的结合,教给我们的年轻在大学和职业生涯中成功所需要的知识和技能。只有我们的年轻人为在大学和职业生涯成功做好充分的准备,我们的社区才能做好在全球经济竞争中取得成功的准备.

  • http://www.corestandards.org
45 states have adopted the common core state standards
45 States have adopted the Common Core State Standards

Minnesota

Nebraska

Virginia

Texas

Not Yet adopted

Hawaii

defining school counseling
定义学校心理咨询Defining School Counseling

学生指导 School Guidance

学校心理咨询 School Counseling

学校心理咨询指导 School Counseling and Guidance

学生指导, 学生辅导, 学校心理咨询学生指导

教育咨询

one main goal of school counseling k 12
学校心理咨询的主要目标One Main Goal of School Counseling (K-12)

帮助学生排除阻碍在学业和生活中取得成功的障碍

To remove barriers which impede academic and life success

slide10
影响美国学校心理咨询发展最新趋势的五个因素影响美国学校心理咨询发展最新趋势的五个因素
  • 贫困, 公平 - 改进学生成绩
  • 改进学校安全环境 - 欺凌
  • 科技发展 - 改进工作手段
  • 职责 - 变学生指导为学生心理咨询
  • 经费 
american school counseling services and guidance system
American School Counseling Services and Guidance System美国学校心理咨询服务和学生指导的工作体制

1. 学校心理咨询指导的工作目标,任务和服务纲要

2. 学校心理咨询指导教师的设置,作用和职业道德规范

3. 美国学校心理咨询指导的工作模式和咨询方法

4. 美国学校心理咨询指导工作的评估-

slide12
美国学校心理咨询国家标准
  • 学校心理咨询计划由学生,家长,教师,校领导和整个社区合作产生。学校心理咨询课程应该是学生的日常教育环境的一个组成部分,学校心理咨询老师应该是在学生学业成功的合作伙伴。
  • 人们常会问起学校心理咨询老师的职责是什么?其实大家更应该问的是:“通过学校心理咨询老师的帮助学生发生了什么变化?”要回答这个问题,美国学校心理咨询协会

(ASCA)创建了一个全国学校心理咨询模式。这是一个全面 的,讲求功效的学校心理咨询工作方案和国家标准.

slide13
学校心理辅导课程全国标准
  • Standards for the Academic/Technical Domain
  • Standards for the Personal/Social Domain
  • Standards for the Career Domain
  • 学业发展
  • 个人和社会发展
  • 职业发展
standards for the academic domain
Standards for the Academic Domain学业发展
  • Standard A: Students will acquire the attitudes, knowledge and skills that contribute to effective life-long learning.
  • Standard B: Students will learn strategies to achieve academic/technical success and satisfaction.
  • Standard C: Students will understand the relationship among education and training, personal qualities, and the world of work.
  • Standard D: Students will understand the relationship of academics to life in the community and at home.
  • 标准A:学生获取要终身学习所需要的态度,知识和技能,
  • 标准B:学生将学习能达到学业/技能的成功和满意的方法。
  • 标准C:学生将了解教育和培训,个人素质和工作之间的关系。
  • 标准D:学生将了解学业和自己在社区与家庭之间的关系。
standards for the personal social domain
Standards for the Personal/Social Domain: 个人和社会发展
  • Standard A: Students will acquire the attitudes, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to help them understand and respect self and others.
  • Standard B: Students will make decisions, set goals, and take necessary action to achieve goals.
  • Standard C: Students will understand safety and survival skills.
  • 标准A:学生将学习了解和尊重自己与他人的知识和人际沟通技巧,以帮助他们了解和尊重自己以及他人。
  • 标准B:学生将学习作决定,设定目标,并采取必要的行动来实现目标。
  • 标准C:学生将了解安全和生存技能。
standards for the career domain
Standards for the Career Domain:职业发展
  • Standard A: Students will acquire the skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make informed career decisions.
  • Standard B: Students will employ strategies to achieve career success and satisfaction.
  • Standard C: Students will demonstrate skills for locating, maintaining, and advancing a job.
  • Standard D: Students will understand diversity and transition issues in today’s workforce.
  • 标准A:学生将取得能认识自己和劳动世界, 并做出明智的职业决策的技能。
  • 标准B:学生将具备策划战略的技能,以取得事业成功和满意。
  • 标准C:学生将具备找寻,从事,并在工作中取得进步的能力.
  • 标准D:学生将了解当今职场中的多样化和转化性.
key components are
Key Components are:

Responsive Services

  • Consultation
  • Personal Counseling
  • Crisis Counseling
  • Referral

System Support

  • Professional Development
  • Staff and Community Relations
  • Parent/Guardian Outreach
  • District Committees and In-Service

Guidance Curriculum

  • Classroom Activities
  • Group Activities
  • Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development

Individual Student Planning

  • Case Management
  • Individual Appraisal
  • Individual Advisement
  • Placement
counseling ethics
Counseling Ethics 心理咨询的职业道德
  • The Counseling Relationship心理咨询的双方关系
  • Confidentiality and Privacy 保密及隐私
  • Professional Responsibility 职业责任
  • Relationships With Other Professionals 与其他专业人员的关系
  • Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation 评估,测量和释译
  • Supervision, Training, and Teaching 培训,指导和教学
  • Research and Publication 科研
  • Distance Counseling, Technology and Social Media 远程心理咨询,技术发展,社交媒体
responsive services
Responsive Services
  • Consultation
  • Individual and Small Group Counseling
  • Crisis Counseling/Response
  • Referrals
  • Peer Facilitation/Mediation
  • Designed to meet students’ immediate needs
school counselors performance expectations
School Counselors Performance Expectations
  • Ability to plan, organize, and deliver school counseling and student support activities
  • Ability to deliver planned guidance curriculum and intentional guidance strategies
  • Ability to provide individual planning for students that guides the student toward career or educational goals
  • Ability to provide appropriate and effective responsive services
school counselors performance expectations continued
School Counselors Performance Expectations (continued)

5. Ability to provide system support

6. Ability to effectively manage student support activities

7. Ability to schedule and use time effectively

8. Ability to monitor student progress

9. Ability to develop and use an instrument to measure and analyze student results

slide22
执行全国学校心理咨询模式的五个注意事项
  • 制订全国学校心理咨询标准的目的是为了进一步推动做好学校心理咨询工作。
  • 不要将这一标准复杂化。
  • 当学校工作很繁杂的时候,有一个国家标准更能帮助学校心理咨询工作掌握工作方向。
  • 学校心理咨询国家模式能帮助你简化你的工作。
  • 发挥您地区专家的作用。http://www.ascanationalmodel.org/
slide23
心理咨询教育
  • MA Degree 30-60 units
  • Pupil Personnel Services Credential – state by state
  • Internship experiences at different level
  • Training in different counseling ares: individual, group counseling, assessment, theoretical foundation, school community dynamics, leadership, multicultural counseling, career counseling, consultation,
gear up

GEAR UP

Community Achievement Project

1999-2005, 2000-2006, 2008-2014

family conditions
家庭因素Family Conditions
  • 长期贫困Chronic poverty
  • 冲突/干扰/暴力 Conflict/disruptions/violence
  • 吸毒醺酒Substance abuse
  • 模仿不良行为Models problem behavior
  • 虐待式的抚养和管教Abusive caretaking
  • 不合理的管教方法 Inadequate provision for quality child care
individual conditions
个人因素 Individual Conditions
  • Medical problems
  • Neurodevelopmental delay
  • Psychological problems
  • Difficult temperament & adjustment problems
  • Inadequate nutrition
school and peer conditions
School and Peer Conditions
  • Poor quality school
  • Negative encounters with teachers
  • Negative encounters with peers
  • Inappropriate peer models
resilience
弹性与坚韧Resilience
  • 失败后能再变坚强,健康,并打造成功的能力

The ability to become strong, healthy, or successful again after something bad happens

  • 在不幸和危难后很容易地自我恢复调整的能力

An ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change

Merriam-Webster (2014)

slide33

“任何人的成功发展都依赖于社会人际之间的关系,信仰和参与社会发展的机会。”“任何人的成功发展都依赖于社会人际之间的关系,信仰和参与社会发展的机会。”

“Successful development in any human system depends on the quality of relationships, beliefs, and opportunities for participation in that system.” (Benard, 1996)

slide34
学生发展程序:形成坚韧的性格

外部资源

学生需求

内心资源

关爱关系

高度要求

自主参与

安全环境

关爱

归属感

尊重

掌控

挑战

核心力

生活意义

不断发展

和进步的

健康,学业和社交关系

合作精神

同情心

决断能力

自我效能

自我意识

目标和动力

学校

家庭

社区

朋友同学

韧性学生发展理论模式 The RYDM Theoretical Framework

what is a school counseling curriculum
What is a School Counseling Curriculum?

“The Guidance curriculum consists of structured developmental lessons designed to assist students in achieving the competencies and is presented systematically through classroom and group activities, K-12.”

- ASCA National Model Workbook (2005)

slide36
综合学校心理辅导课程
  • 综合学校心理辅导课程简介。
  • 规划和设计模式。
  • 实施指南,以改进方案。
  • 准则评估准则。
  • 资源
barriers to academic achievement
学业成就障碍Barriers to Academic Achievement

你学校的学生学业成功的障碍是什么?

What are some of the barriers to academic success that your students face in your schools?

slide38

不同种类和水平的学习者Range of Learners

具备学习动力和能力

Motivationally ready and able

欠缺学习动力,缺乏学习能力,有不同的学习方法

Not very motivated/

lacking prerequisite

skills/ different rates

& styles of learning

逃避/缺乏必备的技能和能力

Avoidant/ very deficient in prerequisite skills capabilities

无障碍No Barriers

教学元件

Instructional

Component

课堂教学

Classroom

Teaching

+

充实的学校活动

Enrichment

Activity

预期的

学习成果

Desired Learner

Outcomes

高期望与成效

High Expectations

& Accountability

学习成功障碍

Barriers To

Learning and

Academic Achievement

UCLA Leadership Institute

individual student planning
Individual Student Planning
  • Individual or Small group Appraisal
  • Individual or Small group Advisement
  • Ongoing systemic activities
  • Designed to assist students in establishing personal goals
  • Designed to assist students in developing future plans
school guidance curriculum
School Guidance Curriculum
  • Integrated with Academic Curriculum
  • Group Activities
  • Parent Workshops/ Activities
  • Structured lessons delivered to all students
  • Related to standards and competencies
evaluating a counseling curriculum
Evaluating a Counseling Curriculum

Are your counseling curriculum activities/lesson plans…

  • For all students?
  • Organized, planned and written?
  • Sequential and flexible?
  • An integral part of the educational process?
  • Opportunities to collaborate with teachers and other staff?
  • Helping students learn more effectively in all three domains?
  • Using data to help us assess our program:
    • Did we do it? (process data)
    • Does it appear that things went well? (perception data)
    • How well did we do it? (results data – actual learning, change has happened).
  • We have made a difference in students’ lives…
school counseling programs
School Counseling Programs
  • School Counseling programs prepare graduates to work with students ranging from kindergarten through high school.
  • School counselors are prepared to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of all K-12 students through understanding how to design and implement comprehensive school guidance and counseling programs
  • School counseling programs include time for individual counseling, group counseling, classroom guidance, family and teacher consultations within the school setting. School counselors work with in both private and public school systems at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.
counselor education programs school counseling training
Counselor Education Programs – School counseling training
  • Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs
  • CACREP Accreditation provides recognition that the content and quality of the program has been evaluated and meets standards set by the profession.
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