Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2. What’s In This Chapter?. What does biology have to do with our behavior? What’s in a brain????? How does the brain tell the body what to do? How does the body let the brain know what it’s doing? Can your brain do things without the body?
Neuroscience and Behavior
Sample image: Perfusion CT in a patient with stroke demonstrates the part of the brain with severely decreased blood flow (arrows).
What are some common uses of the procedure?
PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
PET Scan Process
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
disorients the brain’s atoms
momentarily, when the
atoms return to their
normal spin, they release
Healthy brain (left) schizophrenic brain (right)
enlarged fluid filled brain region
EXAMPLE OF A COMBINED
PET AND MRI SCAN
Examples of PET and MRI techniques
Controls sleeping, waking, and dreaming
“Sarah the Southern Belle”
rear of the brainstem
Glial Cells- glue cells
Frontal Lobes “behind your forehead”
Parietal Lobes “top and rear”
Occipital Lobes “back of head”
Temporal Lobes “above the ears”
Clinical neurologists Gereon Fink of the University of Düsseldorf in Germany and John Marshall from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, pursued the idea that the difference between the two hemispheres lay in their style of working.
“The left brain does the work that no one in their right mind would want to do.”
The Left Hemisphere
LEFT Hemisphere FUNCTIONS
Right Hemisphere Functions
did you see?”
hand to the
Two words separated
by a dot are
“Look at the dot.”
The percentage of
declines with age
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Age in years
9. Do we mean what we say?
10. Problems that lefties have
11. Occupations of lefties
12. Famous lefties
13. Why do lefties disappear with age?
14. Known health risks
15. Leftie life span
The Future of Neuroscience
“WHICH WAY DO THE EYES MOVE”
1. Make up a question using the words “code and mathematics”
2. Picture the last automobile accident you saw. In which direction were the cars going?
3. What does the proverb “Easy come, easy go” mean?
4. Picture and describe the last time you cried.
Subject 1 Subject 2
Neural and Hormonal Systems
cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells.
Cell body end
Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals
Chapter 2: Embryonic and Fetal Brain Development (13 min 28 sec) Safari Montage
Direction of Impulse
Receptor site on
Ecstasy commonly appears in a tablet form, usually imprinted with a monogram
Film: Club Drugs
Endorphins: page 63
Read the section on “The Endorphins” Answer the following questions
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
self-regulated action of
internal organs and glands)
voluntary movements of
Peripheral Nervous System
1. Somatic Nervous System – voluntary (skeletal)
2. Autonomic nervous system- involuntary (glands/muscles)
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
A. Sympathetic Nervous System
B. Parasympathetic Nervous System
Neurons in the brain
connect with one
another to form networks
The brain learns by modifying
certain connections in
response to feedback
Adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] Glands
The Master Gland
1. Which of the following parts of the brain is most active in decision-making?
(a) Reticular formation
(b) Corpus Callosum
(d) Cerebral cortex
(e) Pituitary gland
2. An individual experiencing a low blood- glucose level would be best advised to do which of the following?
(a) take a nap
(b) eat a snack
(c) drink a glass of water
(d) drink a diet soda
(e) get some exercise
3.One suspected cause of schizophrenia is the abnormal increase of which of the following neurotransmitters in the brain?
4.For most people, speech functions are primarily localized in the
(a) right Cerebral hemisphere
(b) left cerebral hemisphere
(c) Occipital lobe
(d) Corpus Callosum
5. People who have experienced severe damage to the frontal lobe of the brain seldom regain their ability to
(a) make and carry out plans
(b) recognize visual patterns
(c) process auditory information
(d) process olfactory information
(e) integrate their multiple personalities
6. Which of the following is a brain-imaging technique that produces the most detailed picture of brain structure?
7. Stimulations of portions of the left temporal lobe of the brain during surgery will cause the patient to
(a) see lights
(b) lose the sense of smell
(c) jerk the left arm
(d) extend the tongue
(e) hear sounds
8. The role of the parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system is to
(a) facilitate the body’s fight-or-flight response
(b) prepare the body to cope with stress
(c) promote rapid cognitive processing
(d) prompt the body to use its resources in responding to environmental stimuli
(e) establish homeostasis after a fight-or-flight response
9. Which of the following occurs when a neuron is stimulated to its threshold?
(a) the movement of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane creates an action potential
(b) the neuron hyperpolarizes.
(c) neurotransmitters are released from the dendrites
(d) the absolute refractory period of the neuron prevents it from responding.
(e) the neuron’s equilibrium potential is reached
10. The thalamus processes information for all of the following senses EXCEPT