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Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2. What’s In This Chapter?. What does biology have to do with our behavior? What’s in a brain????? How does the brain tell the body what to do? How does the body let the brain know what it’s doing? Can your brain do things without the body?

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Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2

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Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Neuroscience and Behavior

Chapter 2


What s in this chapter

What’s In This Chapter?

  • What does biology have to do with our behavior?

  • What’s in a brain?????

  • How does the brain tell the body what to do?

  • How does the body let the brain know what it’s doing?

  • Can your brain do things without the body?

  • Can your body do things without the brain knowing it?


The brain

The Brain

  • Lesion

    • tissue destruction

    • a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused


Phineas gage page 81

Phineas Gagepage 81


How we investigate the brain

How we Investigate the Brain

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

  • an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface

  • these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • CT (computed tomography) Scan

    • a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; also called CAT scan

Sample image: Perfusion CT in a patient with stroke demonstrates the part of the brain with severely decreased blood flow (arrows).


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

What are some common uses of the procedure?

  • Detection of bleeding, brain damage and skull fractures in patients with head injuries.

  • Detects a blood clot or bleeding within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke.

  • Detection of most brain tumors.

  • Planning radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues.

  • Guiding the passage of a needle used to obtain a tissue sample (biopsy) from the brain.


Pet scan

PET Scan

PET (positron emission tomography) Scan

  • a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

PET Scan Process

  • observe blood flow or metabolism in any part of the brain.

  • subject is injected with small quantity of radioactive glucose

  • Brain cells use glucose as fuel

  • shows levels of activity as a color-coded brain map

  • red indicates more active brain areas,

  • Blue/green: less active areas.

  • gray outer surface is MRI picture of the surface of the brain inner colored structure is cingulategyrus, part of the brain's emotional system


Mri scan

MRI Scan

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

  • technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves

  • produces computer-generated images

  • distinguish among different types of soft tissue

  • allows us to see structures within the brain

  • A brief pulse of radio waves

    disorients the brain’s atoms

    momentarily, when the

    atoms return to their

    normal spin, they release

    detectable signals.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Healthy brain (left) schizophrenic brain (right)

enlarged fluid filled brain region


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

EXAMPLE OF A COMBINED

PET AND MRI SCAN

  • All hot peppers contain capsaicinoids

  • causes eyes to water, nose to run, induces perspiration.

  • no flavor or odor

  • act directly on the pain receptors in the mouth and throat.

  • The primary capsaicinoid, capsaicin, so hot that a single drop diluted in 100,000 drops of water will produce a blistering of the tongue.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Examples of PET and MRI techniques

Thalamus Cortex

  • These 2 images show subjects who received a painful injection of the chemical capsaicin into the upper arm. show increased blood flow (the PET scan shows the thalamus and primary somatosensory cortex after the injection. The gray areas of the images (the MRI) Using this method can identify the areas of the brain that are active during specific conditions.

  • could be used to study just about any other cognitive function.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Brain Structures

  • The brain has three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.

  • The forebrain: cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus

  • The brainstem: midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem

  • The hindbrain: cerebellum, pons and medulla.


Lower level brain structures

Lower-Level Brain Structures

  • Brainstem

    • the oldest part

    • central core of the brain

    • beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull

    • responsible for automatic survival functions

  • Medulla [muh-DUL-uh]

    • base of the brainstem

    • controls heartbeat and breathing


The brain1

The Brain


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Brain stem

  • "brain stem" is the part of your brain that was first to evolve in primitive human beings.

  • called a "reptilian brain" since it resembles almost the whole brain of a reptile.

  • source of all your instincts and feelings!

  • links your brain to your "spinal cord.“

  • It is where all the incoming and outgoing "messages" come together and cross over.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Controls sleeping, waking, and dreaming


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • Reticular Formation (the panty hose)

    • a nerve network inside the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

    • Severe damage can induce a coma

  • Thalamus [THAL-uh-muss] (411 operator)

    • the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; communication passes through

    • it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla


Cerebellum sehr uh bell um

Cerebellum [sehr-uh-BELL-um]

“Sarah the Southern Belle”

  • the “little brain” attached to the

    rear of the brainstem

  • it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

  • Important in walking, balance, or shaking hands


The limbic system

The Limbic System


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • Limbic System: a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres

    • emotions such as fear and aggression

    • basic drives such food and sex

    • includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

  • Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la]

    • two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion (aggression/rageand fear)


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Hypothalamus:

  • neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities

    • eating

    • drinking

    • body temperature

  • helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland

  • is linked to emotion

  • “pleasure center” or “reward center”


The limbic system1

The Limbic System

  • Electrode implanted in reward center

  • So reinforcing that the mouse pressed the pedal up to 7000x in one hour


The cerebral cortex

The Cerebral Cortex

Cerebral Cortex

  • the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres

  • the body’s ultimate control and information processing center

    Glial Cells- glue cells

  • cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons


Cerebral cortex basic subdivisions page 78

Cerebral Cortex: Basic Subdivisionspage 78


Structure of the cerebral cortex

Structure of the Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobes “behind your forehead”

  • involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans (initiative) and judgments (morality)

    Parietal Lobes “top and rear”

  • include the sensory cortex

    Occipital Lobes “back of head”

  • include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

    Temporal Lobes “above the ears”

  • include the auditory areas


Function of the cerebral cortex

Function of the Cerebral Cortex

Motor Cortex

  • area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

    Sensory Cortex

  • area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations


The cerebral cortex page 79

The Cerebral Cortexpage 79


The cerebral cortex1

The Cerebral Cortex

  • Functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex (occipital lobes) activated as the subject looks at faces


Visual and auditory cortex page 80

Visual and Auditory Cortexpage 80

Occipital Lobes

Temporal Lobes


Association areas page 81

Association Areaspage 81

  • More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex


The cerebral cortex language

The Cerebral Cortex & Language

Aphasia

  • impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding)

    Broca’s Area

  • an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

    Wernicke’s Area

  • an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression


Specialization and integration

Specialization and Integration


Specialization and integration1

Specialization and Integration

  • Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words


The cerebral cortex brain reorganization

The Cerebral Cortex:Brain Reorganization

  • Plasticity

    • the brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

      • Children have a surplus of neurons

      • When one area is damaged, other areas may in time reorganize and take over some of its functions

      • “stem cell research”


Our divided brains

Corpus callosum

Our Divided BrainS

Corpus Callosum

  • large band of neural fibers

  • connects the two brain hemispheres

  • carries messages between the hemispheres


Our divided brains1

Our Divided Brains

  • The information highway from the eye to the brain

  • The opposite side of the brain’s hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body


Hemispheric specialization

Hemispheric Specialization


The hemispheres of the brain

The Hemispheres of the Brain

Clinical neurologists Gereon Fink of the University of Düsseldorf in Germany and John Marshall from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, pursued the idea that the difference between the two hemispheres lay in their style of working.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

“The left brain does the work that no one in their right mind would want to do.”

-Amanda Barrow

1st period


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

The Left Hemisphere

(Verbal)

  • The left brain focuses on detail.

  • It is the natural home for all mental skills that need us to act in a series of discrete steps or fix on a particular fragment of what we perceive.

  • skills such as recognizing a friend's face in a crowd or "lining up" words to make a sentence.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

LEFT Hemisphere FUNCTIONS

Speech

Language

Logic

Writing


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • RIGHT

  • Hemisphere

  • FUNCTIONS

  • concentrates on the broad,

    • background picture.

  • It has a panoramic focus..

  • good at seeing general connections

  • best able to represent the relative position of objects in space

  • handles emotional and metaphorical aspects of speech.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Right Hemisphere Functions

Spatial Reasoning

Art

Music

Emotions


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • So, in a neat and complementary division of labor, one side of the brain thinks and sees in wide-angle while the other zooms in on the detail.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • To examine the functions carried out by each hemisphere, neurologists scanned the brain of subjects while they were shown a series of letter navons. A letter navon is a large letter composed of smaller letters as shown in the side box. The researchers soon found out that while the subjects concentrated on the small F's, the left hemisphere showed greater activity; when they focused on the big S, the right hemisphere became active.

  • Thus, they had demonstrated that the left hemisphere focused on the details, while the right perceived the overall, background picture.


Split brain

Split Brain

  • A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (corpus callosum) between them.


Split brain sperry gazzaniga

Split BrainSperry & Gazzaniga

“What word

did you see?”

or

“Point with

your left

hand to the

word you

saw.”

Two words separated

by a dot are

momentarily projected.

“Look at the dot.”


Test yourself for split brain

Test yourself for Split Brain

  • Perform the following task simultaneously. You should be able to do both tasks with ease if you are split-brain

  • Draw a picture of a house; include windows, door, chimney with either hand

  • With the other hand, write your first and last name in cursive writing.

  • You can’t stop one task to work the other!


Disappearing southpaws

Percentage of

left-handedness

14%

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

The percentage of

lefties sharply

declines with age

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Age in years

Disappearing Southpaws

  • The percentage of left-handers decreases sharply in samples of older people (adapted from Coren, 1993).


All hands of deck answer the following questions on p 89 91 hw grade

All Hands of DeckAnswer the following questions on p.89-91 HW GRADE

  • % of population lefties

  • More males or females?

  • Inherited?

  • Pre-cultural?

  • Cultural influence?

  • Human –vs- animal

  • Identical twins?

  • Right head/left head babies

9. Do we mean what we say?

10. Problems that lefties have

11. Occupations of lefties

12. Famous lefties

13. Why do lefties disappear with age?

14. Known health risks

15. Leftie life span

16.Evolutionary explanation?


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

The Future of Neuroscience

  • A team of biologists and chemists is closing in on bringing non-living matter to life.

  • Jack Szostak, a molecular biologist at Harvard Medical School, is building simple cell models that can almost be called life.

  • protocells are built from fatty molecules that trap bits of nucleic acids that contain the source code for replication.

  • It harnesses external energy from the sun or chemical reactions,

  • could form a self-replicating, evolving system that satisfies the conditions of life

  • isn't anything like life on earth now, but might represent life as it began or could exist elsewhere in the universe. 

  • these genes would launch the new form of life down the Darwinian evolutionary path

  • researchers are trying to design a completely novel form of life that humans have never seen and that may never have existed.


Psychology experiment

PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENT

“WHICH WAY DO THE EYES MOVE”


Did you know

DID YOU KNOW?

  • The direction your eyes move when you think about a question may indicate which side of the brain you are using for the answer.

  • Ask 2 friends the following list of questions and secretly watch whether they first look to the left or to the right as they consider each.


Question one

QUESTION ONE

1. Make up a question using the words “code and mathematics”


Question two

QUESTION TWO

2. Picture the last automobile accident you saw. In which direction were the cars going?


Question three

QUESTION THREE

3. What does the proverb “Easy come, easy go” mean?


Question four

QUESTION FOUR

4. Picture and describe the last time you cried.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

DATA

  • Record which direction the person looks on each question.

  • Questions 1 and 3 are verbal, non-emotional questions. The subject should use the left hemisphere to answer and as a result, tends to look to the right.

  • Questions 2 and 4 are spatial-emotional questions that require the right hemisphere and should yield more eye movements to the left.


Results

RESULTS

  • Summarize your results in a short paragraph which includes your analysis of the recorded data, any inconsistencies you found, and any problems you may have encountered administering this test.


Response paper

RESPONSE PAPER

Subject 1 Subject 2

Right Right

Left Left

Right Right

Left Left

  • Summary: Summary:

  • Problems encountered:

  • Signatures of subjects


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Neural and Hormonal Systems


Neural communication

Neural Communication

Biological Psychology

  • branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

  • some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists,

  • behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists


Neural communication1

Neural Communication

Neuron

  • a nerve cell

  • the basic building block of the nervous system

    cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells.

    Dendrite

  • the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

    Axon

  • the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Neural Communication

  • Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath

    • a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons

    • enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses


Neural communication2

Neural Communication


Neural communication3

Neural Communication

Action Potential

  • a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

  • generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane

    Threshold

  • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse


Neural communication4

Neural Communication

Synapse [SIN-aps]

  • junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

  • tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gapor cleft

    Neurotransmitters

  • chemical messengers that travel the synaptic gaps between neurons

  • when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse


Neural communication5

Cell body end

of axon

Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals

Neural Communication


Neural communication6

Neural Communication


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

FILM

Chapter 2: Embryonic and Fetal Brain Development (13 min 28 sec) Safari Montage

http://videoservicesondemand.volusia.k12.fl.us/SAFARI/montage/schoolnews.html


Flushing toilet

FLUSHING TOILET

  • All or None Principle: once the handle is pushed and the toilet begins flushing, there is no stopping it.

  • Once a neuron is fired, it cannot be stopped or it’s message taken back

  • Like a gun, either a neuron fires or it doesn’t.

  • The strength of the stimulus does not affect the action potential speed.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Direction of Impulse

  • A toilet only flows one way-out into the sewage system. The direction never changes. A toilet that is working properly never flows up.

  • A neuron always fires the impulse in a specific direction- towards the target


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Refractory Period

  • Brief period of time after you flush the toilet during which the handle is useless and the toilet cannot be flushed again.

  • Same for a neuron, which limits the number of times a neuron can be fired per second.

  • A camera flash that pauses to recharge


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

THRESHOLD:

  • There is a specific level of intensity and a limit to the volume that it is possible to flush down a toilet

  • The amount of pressure required to push the trigger to flush the toilet

  • When a toilet is being flushed, a minimum intensity of water pressure is needed in order for the toilet to function properly.

  • The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Resting Potential

  • When the toilet is not being flushed, no water moves in or out and is stable. Ready to be flushed immediately

  • When a neuron is at rest it too is stable

  • A resting axon has an excess of neg. charged ions inside and the fluid outside of an axon membrane has an excess of pos. charged ions.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Action Potential

  • A neural impulse

  • Brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

  • When a neuron’s receptor is stimulated, ions rush in and energy flows down the axon

  • The toilet handle is pushed to initiate water rushing into and flowing down the toilet


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Depolarization

  • Pushing the handle stimulates the toilet into action. New water coming into the bowl. the flow of positively charged ions into the axon leads the axon to become positively charged relative to the outside.

  • Causes the next channel to open.

  • Domino effect


Depolarization

Depolarization


Neural communication7

Neural Communication


Neural communication8

Dopamine Pathways

Neural Communication

Serotonin Pathways


Neural communication9

Neural Communication

Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen]

  • a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction

    Endorphins [en-DOR-fins]

  • “morphine within”

  • natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters

  • linked to pain control and to pleasure


Neural communication10

Neurotransmitter

molecule

Receiving cell

membrane

Agonist mimics

neurotransmitter

Receptor site on

receiving neuron

Antagonist

blocks

neurotransmitter

Neural Communication


Agonist vs antagonist

Agonist –vs- Antagonist

  • Excitatory

  • Can mimic the nt

  • Can block nt’s reuptake

  • Opiates enhance normal arousal or sensation of pleasure

  • Ecstacy enhances sexual arousal

  • Inhibitory

  • Prevents the nt’s release

  • Or occupy its receptor site and block its effect

  • Is similar but not enough to stimulate the receptor

  • Foreign money in a snack machine


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Ecstasy commonly appears in a tablet form, usually imprinted with a monogram

Neurotransmitter Agonist.

Film: Club Drugs


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, inducing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. Tactile sensations are enhanced for some users, making general physical contact with others more pleasurable;

  • Good medical use has been the reported ability to facilitate self-examination with reduced fear may prove useful in some therapeutic settings, 2001: permission granted to FDA for testing in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder .


Botox antagonist

BOTOXAntagonist

  • botox is toxic compound. It is an enzyme that breaks down one of the fusion proteins that allow neurons to release acetylcholine. Small doses block the release of acetylcholine by nerve cells that signal muscle contraction.

  • Botox originally produced for the intended relief of uncontrollable muscle spasms. First approved in 1989 to treat two eye muscle disorders--uncontrollable blinking (blepharospasm) and misaligned eyes (strabismus

  • Increasingly being used for cosmetic purposes, to paralyse facial muscles as a means of concealing wrinkles.


Nicotine agonist

NICOTINEAgonist

  • an increase in acetylcholine causes a decreased heart rate and increased production of saliva.

  • Nicotine acts by increasing the activity of certain acetylcholine receptors Nicotine is a potent nerve poison and is included in many insecticides.

  • In lower concentrations, is a stimulant and one of the main factors leading to the pleasure and habit-forming qualities of tobacco smoking.


Neurotransmitter antagonist

NEUROTRANSMITTER ANTAGONIST

  • Curare is a potent neurotoxin. Used as an arrow poison by some Indian peoples of South America

  • Death from curare is caused by loss of the ability to breathe as a result of paralysis. The alkaloid curare molecule mimics the neurotransmitteracetylcholine by binding to its receptor at musclesynapses. This prevents nerves from stimulating muscle contraction.


Neurotransmitter agonist

NEUROTRANSMITTERAgonist

  • The venom of a black widow spider causes a synaptic flood of ACH.

  • Results in violent muscle contractions, convulsions, and possible death.


Bipolar disorders

Bipolar Disorders

  • occurs with equal frequency in men and women. The peak age of onset is during late teens.

  • Neurotransmitter abnormalities in a number of pathways including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine

  • thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum.


All hands on deck endorphins

“All Hands on Deck”Endorphins

Endorphins: page 63

Read the section on “The Endorphins” Answer the following questions

  • “How do drugs/other chemicals alter neurotransmission?

  • What was the Pert and Snyder 1973 finding?

  • What is Endogenous?

  • Interpret David Livingstone”s 1857 Missionary Travels in regards to the role endorphins play.

  • What is meant by “Biological Mercy” by Physician Lewis Thomas

  • What is the price that Nature charges?


The nervous system

The Nervous System

Nervous System

  • the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system

  • consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

    Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • the brain and spinal cord

    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body


The nervous system1

Nervous

system

Peripheral

Central

(brain and

spinal cord)

Autonomic (controls

self-regulated action of

internal organs and glands)

Somatic

Skeletal (controls

voluntary movements of

skeletal muscles)

Sympathetic

(arousing)

Parasympathetic

(calming)

The Nervous System


The nervous system2

The Nervous System

Nerves

  • neural “cables” containing many axons

  • part of the peripheral nervous system

  • connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

    Sensory Neurons

  • neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system


The nervous system3

The Nervous System

Interneurons

  • CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

    Motor Neurons

  • carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands

    Peripheral Nervous System

    1. Somatic Nervous System – voluntary (skeletal)

    2. Autonomic nervous system- involuntary (glands/muscles)


Peripheral nervous system

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System

  • the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles


The nervous system4

The Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

  • the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)

    A. Sympathetic Nervous System

  • division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

    B. Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy


The nervous system5

The Nervous System


The nervous system6

The Nervous System


The nervous system7

Brain

Sensory neuron

(incoming information)

Interneuron

Motor neuron

(outgoing

information)

Muscle

Spinal cord

Skin

receptors

The Nervous System

Reflex

  • a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus


The nervous system8

Neurons in the brain

connect with one

another to form networks

Inputs

Outputs

The brain learns by modifying

certain connections in

response to feedback

The Nervous System

Neural Networks

  • interconnected neural cells

  • with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results


The endocrine system

The Endocrine System

Endocrine System

  • the body’s “slow” chemical communication system

  • a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream


Neural and hormonal systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Hormones

  • chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another

    Adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] Glands

  • a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys

  • secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress

    Pituitary Gland

  • under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • The adrenal glands are orange-colored endocrine glands which are located on the top of both kidneys


Pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland

The Master Gland

  • Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates milk production from the breasts after childbirth

  • Growth hormone or GH - GH stimulates growth in childhood

  • In adults it is important for maintaining muscle mass as well as bone mass. It also affects fat distribution in the body.

  • Adrenocorticotropin or ACTH - ACTH stimulates production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Cortisol, a so-called "stress hormone" is vital to survival

  • Luteinizing hormone or LH - LH regulates testosterone in men and estrogen in women.

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH - FSH promotes sperm production in men and stimulates the ovaries to enable ovulation in women

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland, which regulates the body's metabolism, energy, growth and development

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH - FSH promotes sperm production in men and stimulates the ovaries to enable ovulation in women


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • "Gene Therapy": production of transgenic mice

  • Mice homozygous for a dwarfism gene (lit / lit) grow at a slow rate. An artificial plasmid (top left) is constructed that combines a rat growth-hormone (RGH) gene fused to a mouse metallothionein promoter (MP) gene. A large number of these plasmids are then injected into fertilized eggs of  mice; in a small fraction of cases the plasmid is stabily integrated into the mouse's chromosomes. Production of RGH can then be induced by exposure of the embryo to heavy-metals, which activates the MP promoter. The resulting transgenic offspring (left) weighs 44g (its control sibling weighs 29g). The recombinant chromosome is subsequently inherited in a Mendelian dominant pattern.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

Gigantism

  • Gigantism is an excessive secretion of growth hormone during childhood before the closure of the bone growth plates, which causes overgrowth of the long bones and very tall stature. he vertical growth in height that marks this condition is also accompanied by growth in muscles and organs, which makes the child extremely large for his or her age. The disorder can also delay puberty.


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

  • Macrosomia is the condition of having an unusually large body. The body is in proportion, with the extremities and head also enlarged. Disorders that include this condition are gigantism and acromegaly.


The doughnut assignment

The Doughnut Assignment

  • Select a doughnut that best represents your limbic system

  • Place skittles in the sequential order for the following:

  • Hypothalamus: green skittle

  • Pituitary gland: yellow skittle

  • Amygdala: 2 peanut M&Ms

  • Hippocampus: orange skittle

  • “Bon Appetite”


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

1. Which of the following parts of the brain is most active in decision-making?

(a) Reticular formation

(b) Corpus Callosum

(c) Hypothalamus

(d) Cerebral cortex

(e) Pituitary gland

2. An individual experiencing a low blood- glucose level would be best advised to do which of the following?

(a) take a nap

(b) eat a snack

(c) drink a glass of water

(d) drink a diet soda

(e) get some exercise


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

3.One suspected cause of schizophrenia is the abnormal increase of which of the following neurotransmitters in the brain?

(a) Acetylcholine

(b) Somatotropin

(c) Dopamine

(d) Norepinephrine

(e) serotonin

4.For most people, speech functions are primarily localized in the

(a) right Cerebral hemisphere

(b) left cerebral hemisphere

(c) Occipital lobe

(d) Corpus Callosum

(e) Cerebellum


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

5. People who have experienced severe damage to the frontal lobe of the brain seldom regain their ability to

(a) make and carry out plans

(b) recognize visual patterns

(c) process auditory information

(d) process olfactory information

(e) integrate their multiple personalities

6. Which of the following is a brain-imaging technique that produces the most detailed picture of brain structure?

  • (a) Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • (b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • (c) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

  • (d) Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)

  • (e) Electromyography (EMG)


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

7. Stimulations of portions of the left temporal lobe of the brain during surgery will cause the patient to

(a) see lights

(b) lose the sense of smell

(c) jerk the left arm

(d) extend the tongue

(e) hear sounds

8. The role of the parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system is to

(a) facilitate the body’s fight-or-flight response

(b) prepare the body to cope with stress

(c) promote rapid cognitive processing

(d) prompt the body to use its resources in responding to environmental stimuli

(e) establish homeostasis after a fight-or-flight response


Neuroscience and behavior chapter 2

9. Which of the following occurs when a neuron is stimulated to its threshold?

(a) the movement of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane creates an action potential

(b) the neuron hyperpolarizes.

(c) neurotransmitters are released from the dendrites

(d) the absolute refractory period of the neuron prevents it from responding.

(e) the neuron’s equilibrium potential is reached

10. The thalamus processes information for all of the following senses EXCEPT

(a) smell

(b) hearing

(c) taste

(d) vision

(e) touch


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