Invention of agriculture
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INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE. First people to engage in agriculture were from the Middle East Began around 7000 BC Wheat and barley Sheep and goats Agriculture then gradually spread from Middle East to Europe, Africa, and elsewhere. THE FIRST FARMER. Probably a woman

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INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE

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Invention of agriculture

INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE

  • First people to engage in agriculture were from the Middle East

    • Began around 7000 BC

    • Wheat and barley

    • Sheep and goats

  • Agriculture then gradually spread from Middle East to Europe, Africa, and elsewhere


The first farmer

THE FIRST FARMER

  • Probably a woman

    • Did most grain-collecting as part of their general food gathering duties

    • Noticed that that stored wild grain could be grown on purpose

  • Domestication of animals probably came from the keeping of pets or from the temporary retention of animals after a hunt


Results of agriculture

RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE

  • Required intensification of group organization

    • Neolithic farmers lived in settlements which had populations that ranged from 150 (Jarmo) to 2000 (Jericho)


Social organization

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

  • Settlements originally ruled by a council of elders but, over time, authority became vested in a single chieftain

  • Individual independence was limited

    • Inhabitants worked together collectively in a very close-knit society

    • Communal granaries, communal ovens, and communal fields abound in Neolithic sites

    • Private property limited to an individual’s personal possessions


Possessions

POSSESSIONS

  • Needs of agriculture and stability and relative prosperity provided by agriculture increased human possessions

    • Clay pottery

    • Woven baskets

    • Woolen and linen clothing

    • Sophisticated tools and weapons

    • Metallic ornaments

    • Carts and wagons with solid wheels

    • Plow


Outside contacts

OUTSIDE CONTACTS

  • Neolithic communities had links to larger world

  • Existence of walls indicates that they were sometimes fearful of these contacts

  • Other contacts were more peaceful

    • Obsidian and turquoise items in Jericho came from at least several hundred miles away

      • Either gifts or received in exchange for grain

Jericho


Invention of agriculture

Agriculture appeared in China and Greece around 5000 BC

BIG POINT

There was no universal transition point between Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages

It was a gradual and uneven process with some regions adopting agriculture very early and other regions adopting it much later

Spread of Agriculture into the rest of Europe was slow—due to harsher climate and widespread forests

Agriculture did not appear in Germany until 100-200 AD


Differences in lifestyle

DIFFERENCES IN LIFESTYLE

  • Determined by the region where men settled and the environmental factors they had to deal with

  • Lake houses in Switzerland, long houses along Danube, stone huts in Britain, reed lean-tos in Egypt, and clay brick huts in Middle East

  • Tools and weapons also varied, as did social and political organization and even ideas

    • Broad language groups appeared

      • Semitic, Indo-European, etc.


Civilization i

CIVILIZATION I

  • THE PRESENCE OF FIRMLY ORGANIZED STATES WHICH HAVE DEFINITE BOUNDARIES AND SYSTEMATIC POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS (LED BY CLEARLY IDENTIFIED POLITICAL OR RELIGIOUS LEADERS)

  • THE DISTINCTIONS OF SOCIAL CLASSES

    • THE EXISTENCE OF A SOCIAL HIERARCHY WITH PEOPLE RANKED IN SOCIAL GROUPS, ONE ABOVE THE OTHER


Civilization ii

CIVILIZATION II

  • ECONOMIC SPECIALIZATION

    • DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONS SUCH AS FARMER, CRAFTSMAN, MERCHANT, PRIEST, WARRIOR, ETC.

      • ALL INTERDEPENDENT

  • CONSCIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF ARTS AND INTELLECTUAL ATTITUDES

    • RISE OF MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

    • USE OF WRITING TO KEEP RECORDS OR COMMUNICATE FAMOUS DEEDS

    • ELABORATION OF THEOLOGY

      • EXPRESSION OF RELIGIOUS VIEWS ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE GODS, THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH MEN, AND ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE WORLD


Civilization iii

CIVILIZATION III

  • USUALLY CONNECTED TO CITIES BUT CITIES ARE NOT AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT TO CIVILIZATION

    • NEOLITHIC JERICHO COULD BE CONSIDERED A CITY BUT IT WAS NOT A CIVILIZATION

    • CIVILIZATION DEVELOPED FIRST IN EGYPT WITHOUT CITIES

    • CITIES AND CIVILIZATION DID DEVELOP TOGETHER IN MESOPOTAMIA


Uniqueness of civilization

UNIQUENESS OF CIVILIZATION

  • Civilization was not simply the next inevitable step from the Neolithic Age

    • Many people in the world remained at the simple food-raising stage for thousands of years—without developing any sort of civilization

  • Only three locations in the world developed civilizations entirely on their own

    • China

    • Central America and Peru

    • Mesopotamia/Egypt


Mesopotamia

MESOPOTAMIA

In north, rivers are far apart and separated by hills and numerous tributaries

In south, rivers are closer together and this is where civilization would emerge

Variously called Sumer, Akkad, and Babylonia

Tigris

Means “Land Between Two Rivers”

Euphrates


Mesopotamian geography

MESOPOTAMIAN GEOGRAPHY

Southern region is one of dried mud flats, stagnant pools, and reed swamps

Little incentive for men to settle there—except for the fact that its soil was fertile, light, and easy to cultivate and the rivers provided a reliable source of water

No natural building materials and no metallic deposits—with the exception of clay

Normally very hot and dry with temperatures approaching 120 degrees in the summer

Seldom rained but, when it did, it came in torrential downpours


Geographic influences

GEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES

Continual movement of new people into region constantly exposed Mesopotamia to new influences and also allowed it to spread its influence more widely throughout the Middle East

Tribes also periodically wandered into the region from the foothills and mountains of Armenia and Iran

This is where the Sumerians probably first came from

Arabian Desert to south and west supported nomadic population of Semitic-speaking people who periodically wandered into Mesopotamia


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