" Kuu-uurija töö-öö jää-äärel " " The moon explorer's worknight on the edge of the ice ". - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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" Kuu-uurija töö-öö jää-äärel " " The moon explorer's worknight on the edge of the ice ". . Databases. Session 2, April 24 th , 2009. Examples of typological databases. Databases of special projects, e.g. Northwest Iranian Project Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures (APiCS)

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"Kuu-uurija töö-öö jää-äärel"

"The moon explorer's worknight on the edge of the ice".

Databases l.jpg


Session 2, April 24th, 2009

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Examples of typological databases

  • Databases of special projects, e.g. Northwest Iranian Project

  • Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures (APiCS)

  • The World Atlas of Language Structures - WALS

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  • The Universals Archive (= what you can get out of databases)

  • http://typo.uni-konstanz.de/archive/intro/

  • Das grammatische Raritätenkabinett (= what you rarely find in databases)

  • http://typo.uni-konstanz.de/rara/intro/

  • The World Atlas of Language Structures Online

  • http://wals.info/index

  • Language Typology Resource Center

  • http://www.lotschool.nl/Research/ltrc/

  • The Typological Database System Project

  • http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/index.html

  • http://www.hum.uva.nl/TDS/

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  • Language Typology Database (Caen)

  • http://www.unicaen.fr/typo_langues/index.php?malang=gb

  • Autotyp (Leipzig & Berkeley)

  • http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~autotyp/

  • Pavia Typological Database

  • http://www-1.unipv.it/paviatyp/

  • UPSID: UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database (by Ian Maddieson and KristinPrecoda)

  • http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/faciliti/sales/software.htm

  • http://www.langmaker.com/upsidlanguages.htm

  • http://web.phonetik.uni-frankfurt.de/upsid (=Henning Reetz'sUPSID interface)

  • StressTyp (Leiden)

  • http://stresstyp.leidenuniv.nl/

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  • XTone: Cross-Linguistic Tonal Database (Berkeley)

  • http://xtone.linguistics.berkeley.edu/index.php

  • Metathesis Database (Ohio State)

  • http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~ehume/metathesis/

  • The World Color Survey (Berkeley)

  • http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/wcs/

  • The Surrey Morphology Group: Databases

  • http://www.smg.surrey.ac.uk/

  • Graz Database on Reduplication

  • http://reduplication.uni-graz.at/redup/

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  • Matthew Dryer's Typological Database

  • http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/database

  • Plank, TYPOLOGY Reading List 64

  • Intensifiers and Reflexives (FU Berlin)

  • http://noam2.anglistik.fu-berlin.de/~gast/tdir/

  • Reciprocals (FU Berlin & Utrecht)

  • http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/burs/

  • Focus Quantifiers (FU Berlin & Antwerp)

  • http://noam2.anglistik.fu-berlin.de/~gast/fq/

  • Numbers from 1 to 10 in over 5000 Languages

  • http://www.zompist.com/numbers.shtml

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What is WALS?

  • The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Ed. by Martin Haspelmath, Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil & Bernard Comrie. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. Available online at http://wals.info/.

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  • The World Atlas of Language Structures (2005) contains 142 maps of the distribution of phonological, grammatical and lexical phenomena in the languages in the world

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The goal of WALS Online

  • The goal of WALS is ‘[making] information on the structural diversity of the world’s languages available to a large audience’

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WALS Online. Characteristics

  • WALS Online is a website consisting of five main parts. The first part, Features, functions as an index to the 142 maps and chapters of the original edition.

  • The second part, Languages, provides multiple interfaces to the languages that comprise the WALS dataset. Languages are indexed by name, by language family, and by country.

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WALS Online. Characteristics

  • The third major part of WALS Online is a database of all 5728 references for extracting the feature values for the individual languages.

  • The fourth part of WALS Online is simply an index of all the authors that coded features and wrote the chapter texts, with links to the features.

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WALS Online. Characteristics

  • The fifth part of the site is called Newsblog. The link leads to messages in the category ‘News’ on a weblog that at the same time functions as a place where comments pertaining to individual Features/Chapters can be left. To that end, every feature page includes a link ‘discuss’ which leads to a post on the blog.

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For the users of WALS Online

  • For usability and extensibility, there are the following facilities:

  • a downloadable KML file (containing the placemarks and feature values) is provided for each page that includes a map.

  • the same data is also available in XML format.

  • Every chapter contains a ‘cite’ link

  • Every chapter contains a link to a downloadable PDF version

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Further issues

  • The reference database is fully searchable, and every single citation can also be exported to various formats.

  • For further data on the database, for its current challenges, how it can be used, and the question of genealogical data, see

  • http://email.eva.mpg.de/~cysouw/pdf/cysouwGRAZ.pdf

  • http://email.eva.mpg.de/~cysouw/pdf/cysouwCHALLENGES.pdf

  • http://email.eva.mpg.de/~cysouw/pdf/cysouwKOENIG.pdf

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  • You will see the webpage of the WALS as I show it to you

  • On that page, you click and scroll further on your own!

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Typology bibliography for reference

Comrie, Bernard, Language universals and linguistic typology: syntax and morphology. Blackwell, Oxford, 1981.

Croft, William. Typology and universals, second edition. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Dahl, Östen.  The growth and maintenance of linguistic complexity. Studies in Language Companion Series. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2004.

Dahl, Östen. Tense and aspect systems. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Martin Haspelmath, Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil, Bernard Comrie (Eds.). The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Heine, Bernd and Kuteva, Tania. Language contact and grammatical change (Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

For an additional list of readings, see the following website:


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On the Uralic languages

Daniel Abondolo (ed.). 1988. The Uralic languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions). London & New York: Routledge. (choose one chapter/language, ca. 25 pp.)

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Internet links by Bernhard Wälchli

Links to linguistic typology and some other (maybe) useful links

ALT – Association for Linguistic Typology


(membership directory, grammar watch)

Many typologists have some of their publications on-line on their homepages. Some examples:

Matthew Dryer http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/dryer.htm

Martin Haspelmath http://email.eva.mpg.de/haspelmt/

Östen Dahl http://www.ling.su.se/staff/oesten/index.htm

Maria Koptjevskaja Tamm http://www.ling.su.se/staff/tamm/

Michael Cysouw http://email.eva.mpg.de/cysouw/

Balthasar Bickel http://www.uni-leipzig.de/bickel/research/papers/index.html

Stephen Levinson http://www.mpi.nl/Members/StephenLevinson/Publications

Nick Enfield http://www.mpi.nl/Members/NickEnfield/Publications

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The Leipzig Glossing Rules http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/files/morpheme.html

The Universals Archive http://ling.uni-konstanz.de:591/Universals/introduction.html

Das Grammatische Raritätenkabinett http://ling.uni-konstanz.de:591/universals/introrara.html

Surrey Morphology Group homepage: http://www.surrey.ac.uk/LIS/SMG/

(Under Construction): Linguipedia


Questionnaires http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/fieldtools/tools.htm#questionnaires

The Ethnologue (An encyclopedic reference work cataloging all of the world’s 6,912 known

living languages)


The Rosetta Project: Building an Archive of ALL documented human languages


Dictionaries http://www.yourdictionary.com/languages.html

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen (with hopefully more of their stuff on-

line in the future)


Library Hyper-Catalogue (Germany and some other countries)


Book reviews: http://linguistlist.org/pubs/reviews/browse-by-pub1.html

Used and out of print books: http://used.addall.com/

For those who read Swedish: http://www.ling.su.se/lingvistik/special/samlisar/samlisar.html

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Best short description on Estonian

  • http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=12437&get=last

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About the tree by Michael Cysouw

  • Based on the data of the WALS in April 2009

  • Using the program SplitsTree -- a popular program for inferring phylogenetic trees or, more generally, phylogenetic networks from various types of data such as a sequence alignment, a distance matrix or a set of trees. According to its developers, SplitsTree uses published methods such as split decomposition neighbor-net, consensus network, super networks methods or methods for computing hybridization or simple recombination networks.

  • Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SplitsTree

  • A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a tree showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. In a phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees correspond to time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units (HTUs) as they cannot be directly observed.

  • Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_tree

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  • Rokonszenv (NyTI)

  • http://fu.nytud.hu/

  • http://fu.nytud.hu/nyk.htm

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  • http://www.eki.ee/murded/fonoteek/index.php?leht=3&haldus=Liivi

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  • http://kaino.kotus.fi/

Http kaino kotus fi cgi bin julk1 termit cgi l.jpg


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Http www cl ut ee korpused kasutajaliides l.jpg


Http eelex eki ee shslogin htm l.jpg


Http www keeleveeb ee l.jpg


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contains several useful language tools for Estonian

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Many electronic dictionaries, language resources can be found at the website of the Institute of the Estonian Language: www.eki.ee

Online reference grammar of Estonian:


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EKI resources

  • Some examples:http://www.eki.ee/dict/http://www.eki.ee/corpus/http://www.eki.ee/knab/http://www.eki.ee/termin/Linguistic software:  http://www.eki.ee/tarkvara/Help in language:  http://www.eki.ee/keeleabi/The corpus of emotional speech:  http://urve.eki.ee:5000/Open for public: dictionaries of EELex:The official spelling and meanings, newer version: http://www.eki.ee/dict/qs2006/The same dictionary, complex queries: http://www.eki.ee/dict/QS2006.tegemisel/full.htmlIn autumn 2009, the Monolingual dictionary will be made public.

  • The basis for Estonian-X dictionaries, public version: http://exsa.eki.ee/

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Mostelectronic dictionariescan be found at



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Instructions for using the parser(Házi feladat)

1.Download the parser (author of this parser: Kaili Müürisep) from the following website: www.ut.ee/~kaili/nptool/Oktoober.zip

2. Having unpacked the parser, you need to start the program by clicking on the icon that is indicated with blue highlight on the follolwing slide.

3. Copy the text you need to analyze in the upper window and see the solution in the lower one. Don’t panic, it looks more complicated than it is!

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Missugused on eestlased?




mis_sugune+d //_P_ inter rel pl nom #cap // **CLB @SUBJ @PRD


ole+0 //_V_ main indic pres ps3 pl ps af #FinV #Intr // @+FMV


eestlane+d //_S_ com pl nom // @SUBJ @PRD


? //_Z_ Int //



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Other linguistic corpora

  • http://www.murre.ut.ee/vakkur/Gooti/pildid.htm

  • http://www.murre.ut.ee/vakkur/Korpused/korpused.htm

  • http://www.murre.ut.ee/vakkur/Gooti/Originaal/Kiri.jpg.htm

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  • Go through the WALS maps we discussed in the previous session and the maps number 49, 65, 68, 77, 95, 112, 121, 122

  • See what they contain and lack about Estonian and your language and DOCUMENT your findings in writing.

  • Look at the websites and answer the questions on my slides of the first session.

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  • This talk introduced the World Atlas of Linguistic Structures

  • And briefly mentioned other linguistic databases, typological or not

  • Focused a bit more on Estonian language resources that are available on the internet

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