HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM
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HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM. HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM IN FEDERATIONS: CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES. Forum of Federations / Forum des fédérations  www.forumfed.org  [email protected] THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO. DR. EDUARDO VELASCO

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HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM IN FEDERATIONS: CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES

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Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM IN FEDERATIONS: CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES

Forum of Federations / Forum des fédérations www.forumfed.org [email protected]

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO

DR. EDUARDO VELASCO

DR. ARMANDO ARREDONDO

Presentado ante el Foro de Federaciones en Sao Paulo, Brasil, 15 de octubre de 2001


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

  • Reform of the social security through pension reform to generate internal savings in the long run.

  • Financial restructuring to avoid bankruptcy of the social security system, including its health component.

  • Health reform formulation, legislation, and implementation is led by structural adjustment policies, through technocrats empowered to bring about policy change.

  • Efforts at reforming the IMSS health care provision have included decentralization and financial deconcentration to the local level.

  • Efforts to establish separation of the financing and provision functions.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

  • Deconcentration to shift power from the central offices to peripheral offices

  • Delegation

  • Devolution shifts responsibility and authority from the central offices of the Ministry of Health to separate administrative structures still within the public administration

  • Privatization. Prospective payment health insurance with private providers; reversion of fees to companies who purchase health services elsewhere.

  • The center retains policy making and monitoring roles and the periphery takes operational responsibility for administration.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

DECENTRALIZATION COMPONENTS:

 -Competitional. Devolution to the states, of the direction, coordination, and operational implementation of medical care, public health, and sanitary control of concurrent general health services.

 -Administrative. Creation of a structure to operate State Health Services.

 -Patrimonial. The federal infrastructure was transferred at no cost to State Health Services.

 -Occupational. Workers were protected under the labor and social security scheme and the employers’ individual faculties were delegated.

 -Financial. A co-financing system was set up with federal and state contributions.

 -Logistic. A mechanism was established to provide technical and logistic support required by decentralized services for their culmination and better development.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

  • link health to economic and social development

  • reduce health system gaps that affect the poor.

  • deal with emerging problems by establishing priorities

  • launch a national crusade for improving the quality of services

  • build a new cooperative federalist health system

  • strengthen the leading role of Secretaria de Salud ( SSA)

  • advance towards an Integrated Healthcare Model

  • strengthen investments in human resources, research, and infrastructure.

  • promote community participation in health and the free choice of medical care provider.

  • provide financial protection against catastrophic expenditures.

INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

  • IMSS

    • Financial restructuring

    • Deconcentration and rationalization of the IMSS

    • Institutional model for comprehensive health services (MIAIS)

    • Medical areas for deconcentrated management (AMGD)

    • Family health insurance (SSF)

    • Family doctor eligibility and performance incentives in family health care centers

    • Performance incentives

    • Costing according to diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)

    • Contracting-out of health services

  • SSA

    • Extended Coverage Program (PAC)

  • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    THE MEXICAN EXPERIENCE

    Communication media

    Civil society: low incomes

    Civil sociaty: high and middleincomes

    States with high incomes

    Insured Population

    Entrepreneurs

    PRD

    Health Policies

    Health Care Reforms

    Uninsured

    Population

    Health

    Researchers

    IMSS

    SSA

    Federal Government

    President

    States with middle and low incomes

    State governments

    PAN

    PRI

    Health Institution Unions

    Other Unions

    HIGH INFLUENCE on health policies

    MEDIUM INFLUENCE

    on health policies

    LOW INFLUENCE

    on health policies

    INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD PUBLICA, MEXICO


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • GUIDING FORCE: DEMOCRATIZATION

    • LEADING PRINCIPLE: CITIZENSHIP

    • VALUES:

      • JUSTICE

      • LIBERTY

      • REPRESENTATION OF CITIZENS’ INTERESTS

      • SOCIAL PARTICIPATION

      • ACCOUNTABILITY


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Linking health to economic development

      • Decrease backlogs of disease and healthcare

      • Respond to emerging problems

      • Crusade for quality

      • Financial protection

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Federalization

      • Regulation (steering, stewardship)

      • Universal Health System

      • Freedom to choose provider and citizens participation

      • Advancement of knowledge


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Linking health to development

      • - Healthy policies

      • - Intersectoral cooperation

      • - Healthy communities

      • - Women and health

      • - Healthy fiscal policies (15% tax to medications)


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Decreasing backlogs of disease

      • - Improving the package of basic interventions

      • - Cost-effectiveness

      • - Modernization of biotechnology, informatics and telecommunications

      • - 100 essential medications for all


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Responding to emerging problems

      • - cost-effective interventions for emerging or priority problems such as injuries, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity.


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Crusade for quality

      • - Ethics codes

      • - Patients’ rights

      • - Ethics education and information

      • - Performance appraisal of personnel

      • - Standardized processes and monitoring outcomes

      • - Certification of health personnel

      • - Rationalization of regulatory structures


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • SUBSTANTIVE STRATEGIES

      • Financial Protection

    • - Improve financial equity and justice

    • - Decrease catastrophic expenditure in 70-80%

    • - Strengthen preventive care

    • - Liberate resources for productive use

    • - Incentives for formal work/employment

    • - Six-year cumulative cost: 1.2% of GNP


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Federalization

      • - Complete decentralization

      • - Explicit formulation of resource allocation to states

      • - Interstate cooperation

      • -in public health services

      • - in high specialty areas and services


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Stewardship

      • - Liaisons:

        • intersectoral (Consejo de Salud General)

        • sectoral (Comisión Federal de Políticas de Salud

        • territorial (Consejo Nacional de Salud)

        • Through popular representatives (through Oficina de Vinculación del Congreso de la Unión and citizen groups)


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Universal Health System

      • - Gradual elimination of population selective access to health care services

      • - Interinstitutional master plans for high technology investments

      • - Compensation fund among federal and state institutions


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Freedom to choose health provider and citizens’ participation

      • - Free choice of healthcare provider

      • - Free choice of family physician

      • - Citizen health committees at all levels of health care


    Health system reform in federations current situation and perspectives

    HEALTH POLICY AND FEDERALISM

    HEALTH REFORM STRATEGIES

    • INSTRUMENTAL STRATEGIES

      • Strengthening knowledge

      • - Promotion of mission-oriented research

      • - Information system for decision making

      • - Human resource development


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