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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2 Compounds and Chemical Reactions

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2 Compounds and Chemical Reactions. 1. Structure of an Atom. subatomic particles. electrons (‘cloud’). neutrons (nucleus). protons (nucleus). m(n) / m(e) ≈ 2000 . m(n) > m(p) . 2. Atomic & Mass Number. mass number (number of protons plus neutrons).

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slide1

CHEMISTRY 161

Chapter 2

Compounds and Chemical Reactions

slide2

1. Structure of an Atom

subatomic particles

electrons

(‘cloud’)

neutrons

(nucleus)

protons

(nucleus)

m(n) / m(e) ≈ 2000

m(n) > m(p)

slide3

2. Atomic & Mass Number

mass number

(number of protons plus neutrons)

atomic number

(number of protons)

(number of electrons)

slide4

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds
  • 2. The Chemical Formula
  • 3. The Chemical Equation
  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 5. The Name of Chemicals
slide5

1. Compounds

molecular compounds

ionic compounds

EXP1

slide6

Molecular Compounds

1. consist of electrically neutral particles called molecules

2. each molecule consists of atoms

3. atoms are connected via electrons

4. connections are called bonds

(‘springs’)

EXP2

slide7

Molecular Compounds

Group

Period IVA VA VIA VIIA Noble Gas

2 CH4 NH3 H2O HF Ne

3 SiH4 PH3 H2S HCl Ar

4 GeH4 AsH3 H2Se HBr Kr

5 SbH3 H2Te HI Xe

lots of molecules contain hydrogen

EXP3

slide8

Jupiter

H2, He

CH4

PH3

EXP4

slide9

Saturn

H2O (s)

H2, He

CH4

NH3/PH3

slide10

Ionic Compounds I

1. consist of charged particles

2. charged particles are called ions

3. ions are formed by electron transfers from atoms

atom

(neutral)

take electron(s)

(oxidation)

add electron(s)

(reduction)

cation(Na+)

(positive charge)

anion(Cl-)

(negative charge)

slide11

Ionic Compounds II

4. ionic compounds are held together by electrostatic forces

non-metal

metal

EXP5

NaCl

MgO

slide12

2. The Chemical Formula

collection of chemical symbols used to describe

the composition of

elements and compounds

EXP6

slide19

2. The Chemical Formula

collection of chemical symbols used to describe

the composition of

elementsand compounds

NaCl

H2O

Fe2O3

CaSO4  2 H2O

slide20

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds
  • 2. The Chemical Formula
  • 3. The Chemical Equation
  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 5. The Name of Chemicals
slide21

3. The Chemical Equation

chemical equation describes what happens in

a chemical reaction

chemical reaction is combination of

elements and/or compounds

2

H2 + O2 H2O

2

balancing & mass conservation

slide22

3. The Chemical Equation

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

s = solid l = liquid g = gas aq = aqueous solution

2 H2(g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l)

slide23

Examples

  • phosphor with oxygen

2. sulfur with oxygen

3. methane with oxygen

EXP7

slide24

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds
  • 2. The Chemical Formula
  • 3. The Chemical Equation
  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 5. The Name of Chemicals
slide25

4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

a chemical reaction either

absorbs or releases

energy

(heat or light)

releasing energy (heat) exothermic

absorb energy (heat) endothermic

EXP1/2

slide26

KINETIC ENERGY

energy of an object due to its motion

Ekin = ½  m  v2

POTENTIAL ENERGY

energy of an object due to its position

Epot = m  g  h

EXP3

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Etotal = Epot + Ekin = constant

chemical energy is a form of potential energy

slide27

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds
  • 2. The Chemical Formula
  • 3. The Chemical Equation
  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 5. The Name of Chemicals
slide28

Organic Compounds

compounds containing mostly hydrogen and carbon

minor amount other elements (N, O, S, P…)

hydrocarbons

H

C

alkanes

CnH2n+2

slide29

Organic Compounds?

CO2

C4H10

H2CO

CO

H2O

C4H10 combustion

EXP4

slide33

Inorganic Compounds

binary compounds

compounds consisting of ONLY TWO different elements

NaCl

CO2

CaSO4

naming compounds

nomenclature

nomen (Latin) = name

slide34

Metal (Main Group) + Non-Metal

part one (metal)

part two

English name of

element

stem + ide

NaCl

MgO

BeS

symbol stem first element second element

O ox- oxygen oxide

S sulf- sulfur sulfide

N nitr- nitrogen nitride

P phosph- phosphorus phosphide

F fluor- fluorine fluoride

Cl chlor- chlorine chloride

Br brom- bromine bromide

I iod- iodine iodide

slide35

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

metal +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

slide36

Molecular Compounds

PF3

PF5

CO

CO2

HCl

N2O5

NO

NO2

Greek Prefixes

mono- = 1 (often omitted) hexa- = 6

di- = 2 hepta- = 7

tri- = 3 octa- = 8

tetra- = 4 nona- = 9

penta- = 5 deca- = 10

slide37

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +

slide38

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

trans. group

metal

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +

slide39

ionic compounds

cations & anions

compounds must be electrically neutral

Mn+

Em-

nonmetals

metals

transition metals

charge state of ions

slide40

-/+

2/4

-/+

3/5

-2

-1

0

+1

+2

+3

CaCl2

K2S

main group metals – always start with cation

slide41

NiCl2

CuO

CuCl

Mn2O3

B2O3

transition metals – always start with anions

include oxidation state in name – no prefixes

slide42

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

trans. group

metal

oxstate +

metal +

stem + ide

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +

slide43

molecular compounds

ionic compounds

polyatomic ionic compounds

ammonium chloride

sodium dichromate

magnesium carbonate

rubidium sulfate

calcium phosphate

slide44

molecular & ionic compounds

properties

melting point

molecular compounds – weak interactions (gases, liquids) – low melting point

ionic compounds – strong interactions (solids) – high melting point

electrical conductivity

molecular – do not conduct electricity in solid or liquid state

ionic – do not conduct electricity in solid state

ionic – conduct electricity in liquid and aqueous state

slide45

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds
  • 2. The Chemical Formula
  • 3. The Chemical Equation
  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 5. The Name of Chemicals
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