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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2 Compounds and Chemical Reactions. 1. Structure of an Atom. subatomic particles. electrons (‘cloud’). neutrons (nucleus). protons (nucleus). m(n) / m(e) ≈ 2000 . m(n) > m(p) . 2. Atomic & Mass Number. mass number (number of protons plus neutrons).

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2 Compounds and Chemical Reactions

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Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

CHEMISTRY 161

Chapter 2

Compounds and Chemical Reactions


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

1. Structure of an Atom

subatomic particles

electrons

(‘cloud’)

neutrons

(nucleus)

protons

(nucleus)

m(n) / m(e) ≈ 2000

m(n) > m(p)


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

2. Atomic & Mass Number

mass number

(number of protons plus neutrons)

atomic number

(number of protons)

(number of electrons)


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds

  • 2. The Chemical Formula

  • 3. The Chemical Equation

  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

  • 5. The Name of Chemicals


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

1. Compounds

molecular compounds

ionic compounds

EXP1


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Molecular Compounds

1. consist of electrically neutral particles called molecules

2. each molecule consists of atoms

3. atoms are connected via electrons

4. connections are called bonds

(‘springs’)

EXP2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Molecular Compounds

Group

Period IVA VA VIA VIIA Noble Gas

2 CH4 NH3 H2O HF Ne

3 SiH4 PH3 H2S HCl Ar

4 GeH4 AsH3 H2Se HBr Kr

5 SbH3 H2Te HI Xe

lots of molecules contain hydrogen

EXP3


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Jupiter

H2, He

CH4

PH3

EXP4


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Saturn

H2O (s)

H2, He

CH4

NH3/PH3


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Ionic Compounds I

1. consist of charged particles

2. charged particles are called ions

3. ions are formed by electron transfers from atoms

atom

(neutral)

take electron(s)

(oxidation)

add electron(s)

(reduction)

cation(Na+)

(positive charge)

anion(Cl-)

(negative charge)


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Ionic Compounds II

4. ionic compounds are held together by electrostatic forces

non-metal

metal

EXP5

NaCl

MgO


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

2. The Chemical Formula

collection of chemical symbols used to describe

the composition of

elements and compounds

EXP6


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

F2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

O2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

S8


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

N2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

P4


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

H2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

2. The Chemical Formula

collection of chemical symbols used to describe

the composition of

elementsand compounds

NaCl

H2O

Fe2O3

CaSO4  2 H2O


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds

  • 2. The Chemical Formula

  • 3. The Chemical Equation

  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

  • 5. The Name of Chemicals


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

3. The Chemical Equation

chemical equation describes what happens in

a chemical reaction

chemical reaction is combination of

elements and/or compounds

2

H2 + O2 H2O

2

balancing & mass conservation


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

3. The Chemical Equation

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

s = solid l = liquid g = gas aq = aqueous solution

2 H2(g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l)


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Examples

  • phosphor with oxygen

2. sulfur with oxygen

3. methane with oxygen

EXP7


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds

  • 2. The Chemical Formula

  • 3. The Chemical Equation

  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

  • 5. The Name of Chemicals


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

a chemical reaction either

absorbs or releases

energy

(heat or light)

releasing energy (heat) exothermic

absorb energy (heat) endothermic

EXP1/2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

KINETIC ENERGY

energy of an object due to its motion

Ekin = ½  m  v2

POTENTIAL ENERGY

energy of an object due to its position

Epot = m  g  h

EXP3

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Etotal = Epot + Ekin = constant

chemical energy is a form of potential energy


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds

  • 2. The Chemical Formula

  • 3. The Chemical Equation

  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

  • 5. The Name of Chemicals


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Organic Compounds

compounds containing mostly hydrogen and carbon

minor amount other elements (N, O, S, P…)

hydrocarbons

H

C

alkanes

CnH2n+2


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Organic Compounds?

CO2

C4H10

H2CO

CO

H2O

C4H10 combustion

EXP4


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Titan – Saturn’s Largest Moon


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Cassini-Huygens Mission


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Cassini-Huygens Mission


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Inorganic Compounds

binary compounds

compounds consisting of ONLY TWO different elements

NaCl

CO2

CaSO4

naming compounds

nomenclature

nomen (Latin) = name


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Metal (Main Group) + Non-Metal

part one (metal)

part two

English name of

element

stem + ide

NaCl

MgO

BeS

symbol stem first element second element

O ox- oxygen oxide

S sulf- sulfur sulfide

N nitr- nitrogen nitride

P phosph- phosphorus phosphide

F fluor- fluorine fluoride

Cl chlor- chlorine chloride

Br brom- bromine bromide

I iod- iodine iodide


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

metal +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Molecular Compounds

PF3

PF5

CO

CO2

HCl

N2O5

NO

NO2

Greek Prefixes

mono- = 1 (often omitted) hexa- = 6

di- = 2 hepta- = 7

tri- = 3 octa- = 8

tetra- = 4 nona- = 9

penta- = 5 deca- = 10


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

trans. group

metal

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

ionic compounds

cations & anions

compounds must be electrically neutral

Mn+

Em-

nonmetals

metals

transition metals

charge state of ions


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

-/+

2/4

-/+

3/5

-2

-1

0

+1

+2

+3

CaCl2

K2S

main group metals – always start with cation


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

NiCl2

CuO

CuCl

Mn2O3

B2O3

transition metals – always start with anions

include oxidation state in name – no prefixes


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Nomenclature Inorganic Compounds

main group

metal

element +

stem + ide

ionic compounds

(metal + non-metal)

trans. group

metal

oxstate +

metal +

stem + ide

molecular compounds

stem + ide

prefix + element + prefix +


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

molecular compounds

ionic compounds

polyatomic ionic compounds

ammonium chloride

sodium dichromate

magnesium carbonate

rubidium sulfate

calcium phosphate


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

molecular & ionic compounds

properties

melting point

molecular compounds – weak interactions (gases, liquids) – low melting point

ionic compounds – strong interactions (solids) – high melting point

electrical conductivity

molecular – do not conduct electricity in solid or liquid state

ionic – do not conduct electricity in solid state

ionic – conduct electricity in liquid and aqueous state


Chemistry 161 chapter 2 compounds and chemical reactions

Compounds & Chemical Reactions

  • Compounds

  • 2. The Chemical Formula

  • 3. The Chemical Equation

  • 4. Energy in Chemical Reactions

  • 5. The Name of Chemicals


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