Chapter 12
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Chapter 12. An Age of Reform 1820-1860. Wednesday, May 14, 2014. No Homework Do Now: Open your textbooks to page 412-413. Review the map and timeline, what changes are happening in the US from 1820-1860?. Improving Society. The Reforming Spirit Jacksonian Democracy

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

An Age of Reform 1820-1860


Wednesday may 14 2014

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

  • No Homework

  • Do Now: Open your textbooks to page 412-413. Review the map and timeline, what changes are happening in the US from 1820-1860?


Improving society

Improving Society

  • The Reforming Spirit

    • Jacksonian Democracy

      • Expansion of democracy encouraged reform

        • Most states dropped the property requirement for voting

        • Political parties developed a more open way of nominating presidential candidates

      • Reformers wanted more

        • All men should be able to vote

        • Increased rights for women

        • Many were against slavery

          • No society that allowed one human to own another could be democratic


Improving society1

Improving Society

  • The Second Great Awakening

    • Religious ideas also sparked reform

    • New generation of ministers challenged traditional views

    • Predestination was challenged

      • Idea that God decided the fate of a person’s soul even before birth

      • 2nd Great Awakening leaders said that a person’s actions determined their salvation

    • Charles Finney – most important of the 2nd Awakening preachers

      • Held many revivals in 1826

        • Huge outdoor religious meeting

      • Basic result of the 2nd Great Awakening was that people came to believe that they had the power to improve themselves and their society


Improving society2

Improving Society

  • Utopian Communities

    • Robert Owen

      • Founded a utopian community

        • Utopian refers to an ideal – perfect society

    • New Harmony

      • Community owned property

      • Everyone had jobs to do – all contributed for the good of the community

      • Food, wealth, land – all were shared equally

    • New Harmony was anything but harmonious

      • Community members constantly argued about goals and actions

      • The colony dissolved after about 2 years

    • Most utopian communities did not last long

      • Their downfall is because of one main problem

People are GREEDY!


Improving society3

Improving Society

  • Social Reformers at Work

    • Temperance Movement

      • Organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it

    • Whiskey was the drink of choice

      • Cheaper than beer or milk

      • Safer than water

        • Frequently the water supply was contaminated

    • Many women were drawn to the movement

      • They and children suffered abuse from fathers and husbands who drank too much

    • Most Reformers favored Temperance (moderation) in drinking

      • Others chose to push for prohibition

        • A total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol

        • 9 states passed laws banning the use/sale

        • The movement was interrupted by the civil war but re-emerged later


Improving society4

Improving Society

  • Prison Reform

    • Prison system was very harsh

      • Poorly heated buildings, inadequate food, cramped conditions

      • They were designed so that people did not want to be there

    • Not all prisoners were criminals

      • Debtors were sent to prison

        • To pay a debt back – you had to work

        • You cannot work in prison

        • Many debtors spent years in jail

    • Dorothea Dix

      • Schoolteacher from Massachusetts who took up the cause of prison reform

      • Over time she convinced state legislatures to build new, sanitary and humane prisons

        • Also, debtors were no longer sent to jail


Improving society5

Improving Society

  • Reforms for the Mentally Ill

    • Also led by Dorothea Dix

      • She saw what happened to the mentally ill and was shocked

    • The Mentally Ill were kept in prisons

      • They received punishment rather than treatment and care

        • As if it was their fault for their illness

    • Their conditions were often worse than prisoners

      • Kept in cages

      • Never let outside

      • Chained together

    • Dix lobbied state legislatures to build separate facilities

      • Asylums

        • Institutions where mentally ill people could receive care and treatment rather than punishment


Improving society6

Improving Society

  • Education Reform

    • Need for better education

      • In the early 1800s many children received no education

        • Wealthy families hired private tutors

        • Poor children received no education outside the home

      • As a result, many Americans could not read or write

    • Reformers argued that education was important

      • Must make sure that voters were intelligently informed

      • Immigration was also on the rise

        • Better schools would help immigrants become part of American culture


Improving society7

Improving Society

  • Horace Mann

    • Took the lead for education reform

    • Said public financing of education was essential for democracy to work

    • Became head of the state board of education in Massachusetts

      • Convinced the legislature to improve schools

        • Created colleges to train teachers

        • Raised the salaries of teachers

        • Lengthened the school year

      • Other states soon followed this example

      • By the 1850s public schools were common in the NE

        • The west and south lagged behind

        • But eventually they developed their own


Improving society8

Improving Society

  • Education for African Americans

    • Public education did little for African Americans

      • Slave codes prohibited slaves from being taught to read and write

      • In the north, free black children were seldom permitted to enter the same schools as whites

    • Some reformers tried to improve

      • Prudence Crandall

        • Quaker teacher who opened a school for African American girls in Connecticut.

        • Hostile neighbors attacked and destroyed the school

    • Some opportunities did open up

      • African American teachers opened their own private schools

      • Harvard and Oberlin universities allowed African Americans to attend

      • In 1854 Ashmun Institute opened in Pennsylvania

        • First college for African American Men


Wednesday october 9 2013

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

  • No Homework 

  • Do Now: have out homework from last night (reforms)


The fight against slavery

The Fight Against Slavery

  • Roots of the Anti-Slavery Movement

    • Slavery Ends in the North

      • 1780 – Pennsylvania became the first state to pass a law eliminating slavery gradually

      • In 1803 Ohio entered the union as a free state

      • By 1804 – every northern state pledged to end slavery

    • The Colonization Movement

      • Anti-slavery organization established in 1817

        • They had a novel idea…

        • Free slaves, and transport them to a colony established in Africa

          • Liberia


Thursday october 10 2013

Thursday, October 10, 2013

  • Homework: page 426 1-3

  • Do Now: Take out notes from yesterday and be ready to continue


The fight against slavery1

The Fight Against Slavery

  • Growing Opposition to Slavery

    • Inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening

      • Abolitionists

        • Reformers who wanted to abolish, or end, slavery

        • They rejected a gradual end – wanted it stopped ASAP

    • William Lloyd Garrison

      • Quaker abolitionists

        • Did not want violence used

        • Was more radical than others – wanted full political rights for all African Americans

        • Began a newspaper in 1831 – The Liberator

        • Co-founded the Anti-Slavery Society

          • Members included Theodore Weld

          • Sarah and Angelina Grimke


The fight against slavery2

The Fight Against Slavery

  • African American Abolitionists

    • 1829 – David Walker – Appeal: To the Coloured Citizens of the World

      • pamphlet that encouraged enslaved people to rebel, if necessary, to regain their freedom

    • Frederick Douglas

      • Most influential of African American Abolitionists

        • Had been born into slavery

        • Broke the law by learning how to read and write

      • Escaped to freedom in the North

      • Risked being sent back to slavery by speaking out in public

      • Began his own newspaper for Abolition The North Star


The fight against slavery3

The Fight Against Slavery

  • A Former President Takes a Stand

    • John Quincy Adams

      • Now a member of congress

      • Read anti-slavery petitions from the floor of the house

      • Proposed a constitutional amendment that would ban slavery in any new states

        • Amendment was not passed

      • Argued in front of the U.S. Supreme Court for the freedom of the captive African Americans aboard the Amistad


The fight against slavery4

The Fight Against Slavery

  • The Underground Railroad

    • A Network of People

      • Black and white, northerner and southerner

        • All helped slaves reach freedom

      • Working for the ‘railroad’ was illegal

      • ‘conductors’ led slaves from one ‘station’ to another

      • Supporters helped by donating food, money, and clothing

        • Levi Coffin – an Indiana Quaker – assisted more than 3,000 slaves

    • Harriet Tubman

      • Escaped from slavery and helped 300 others to freedom

        • Nicknamed the ‘Black Moses’

        • Southern slave owners offered $40,000 for her capture


The fight against slavery5

The Fight Against Slavery

  • Opposing Abolition

    • Profits

      • Many northerners profited from the existence of slavery

        • Textile mills and merchants counted on the cotton produced in the south

        • Northern workers feared freed slaves would take their jobs

      • These fears prompted violence

        • William Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets with a rope around his neck in Boston

        • Georgia offered a $50,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of Garrison for libel

      • Gag Rule

        • Won in congress by southerners – it blocked discussion of anti-slavery petitions

        • J.Q. Adams fought the rule, but lost


A call for women s rights

A Call for Women’s Rights

  • The Struggle Begins

    • In 1820 – Women’s rights were limited

      • They could not:

        • Serve on juries

        • Vote

        • Attend college

        • Become doctors or lawyers

        • Married women couldn’t own property

    • Some women stood up against this

      • Sojourner Truth

        • Born into slavery – she was illiterate

        • Her words inspired crowds that heard her

        • She became a powerful voice for freedom and equality


Monday october 14 2013

Monday, October 14, 2013

  • Christopher Columbus, Villain or Hero? Essay due Friday (typed, double spaced!)

  • Do Now: What happened when Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton tried to attend the anti-slavery convention?


A call for women s rights1

A Call for Women’s Rights

  • Lucretia Mott

    • Anti-Slavery Quaker

      • Because Quakers allowed women to take public roles, she had experience in organization and public speaking most other women did not

      • Went to London to attend an international anti-slavery convention

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    • Another abolitionist

      • Was in London with her husband – a delegate to the Anti-Slavery Convention

  • The Two Meet

    • Mott and Stanton tried to attend the convention

    • They were told “No Women Allowed”

    • This infuriated them


A call for women s rights2

A Call for Women’s Rights

  • Declaration of Sentiments

    • Mott and Stanton agreed on the need for a convention to advance women’s rights

    • Summer of 1848 – Seneca Falls, NY

      • Met to discuss the social, civil, and religious rights of women

      • More than 300 men and women attended

    • Stanton wrote a declaration of sentiments modeled on the declaration of independence

      • “we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal”

        • The declaration then listed the injustices society placed upon women


A call for women s rights3

A Call for Women’s Rights

  • Call for Suffrage

    • Begun by Stanton with her argument for rights

    • Suffrage is the right to vote

    • Some women were divided on the issue

      • Lucretia Mott argued that the issue was so controversial that trying to gain the right would hurt their other causes

  • New Opportunities for Women

    • The Seneca Falls Convention launched the women’s rights movement

      • An organized effort to improve the political, legal, and economic status of women in American Society


  • A call for women s rights4

    A Call for Women’s Rights

    • Political Victories

      • Susan B. Anthony

        • Became a close ally of Stanton

        • Fought for women’s suffrage

      • Anthony was unmarried

        • Unlike Stanton she could travel across the country

          • Stanton wrote speeches from her home while taking care of her growing family

        • Together they founded the Women’s Suffrage Association

        • Susan was arrested in 1872 for voting in the Presidential Election


    A call for women s rights5

    A Call for Women’s Rights

    • Education for Women

      • More opportunities for women

        • Girls were rarely taught math and science, those were reserved for boys who would grow up to be voters, citizens, and professionals

      • Emma Willard

        • Began an academy for girls in Troy, NY

        • Soon became the model for girls’ schools

      • Mary Lyon

        • Opened Mount Holyoke Female Seminary

        • First college for women

        • Showed that women could indeed learn subjects like geometry, chemistry, and Latin


    A call for women s rights6

    A Call for Women’s Rights

    • New Careers

      • Gradually society began to accept that women could be educated and do other professions

    • Margaret Fuller

      • Began a career as a journalist, scholar, and literary critic

    • Elizabeth Blackwell

      • First woman to graduate from an American Medical College

    • Maria Mitchell

      • Astronomer, first professor hired at Vassar College


    Tuesday october 15 2013

    Tuesday, October 15, 2013

    • Homework:

      • Columbus essay due Friday

      • Page 431 Key terms and people for tomorrow

    • Do Now: page 430 # 1,2,5


    American literature and arts

    American Literature and Arts

    • An American Culture Develops

      • American Themes

        • Art and literature reflected optimism and energy

        • Their works were about things uniquely American

      • Two Early Writers

        • Washington Irving

          • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

          • Rip Van Winkle

        • James Fenimore Cooper

          • The Deerslayer

          • The Last of the Mohicans


    Thursday october 17 2013

    Thursday, October 17, 2013

    • Homework: Essay due tomorrow! Chapter 12 test Tuesday!

    • DO Now: have out homework, compare with a partner


    American literature and arts1

    American Literature and Arts

    • Transcendentalism

      • Movement that looked to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than reason

      • They urged people to seek goodness and truth within their own souls

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

    • Leading transcendentalist

      • Asked people to question the value of material goods in his speeches and essays

      • Stressed individualism

        • The unique importance of each individual

  • Henry David Thoreau

    • Urged people to live simply

    • Encouraged civil disobedience

      • Idea that people should peacefully disobey unjust laws if their consciences demand it

      • This inspired civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King Jr.


  • American literature and arts2

    American Literature and Arts

    • Flowering of American Literature

      • Herman Melville

        • Moby Dick (1851)

          • Tale of a captain who is obsessed with pursuing a white whale. In the end, the captain destroys himself, his ship, and his crew

      • Nathaniel Hawthorne

        • The Scarlet Letter (1850)

          • A young minister is destroyed by secret guilt.

          • Hawthorne explored the dark side of the mind.

      • Louisa May Alcott

        • Little Women (1868)

          • Novel based on her own experiences growing up with three sisters.


    American literature and arts3

    American Literature and Arts

    • Poets of Democracy

      • Poets helped create a new national voice

      • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

        • Based poems on American History

        • Paul Revere’s Ride

        • Song of Hiawatha

      • Walt Whitman

        • Leaves of Grass

        • Book of poems

      • John Greenleaf Whittier

      • Frances Watkins Harper

        • Both wrote poems that condemned slavery


    American literature and arts4

    American Literature and Arts

    • Art and Music

      • Painting America

        • Some painters sought to stir emotions by reproducing the beauty of nature – others painted everyday life

    • Thomas Cole

      • Painted scenes of the Hudson River

    • George Caleb Bingham

      • Timeless picture of life on the great rivers

    • George Catlin

      • Captured the ways and dignity of Native Americans


    American literature and arts5

    American Literature and Arts

    • Popular Songs

      • Most early American songs had roots in English, Irish, or Scottish tunes

      • Over time a wider variety emerged

        • Working songs hummed by sailors or workers

        • Spiritual songs sung by slaves

      • Stephen Collins Foster

        • Father of American Music

          • “Camptown Races”

          • “Old Folks at Home”

          • “Oh! Susanna!”


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