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Scenario #1. Swine Flu Manufacturer. You are an analytical chemist working in R&D for a large pharmaceutical company which is manufacturing a swine flu vaccine. The pressure to bring this product to market is intense. The first production batches have been made.

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Swine Flu Manufacturer

  • You are an analytical chemist working in R&D for a large pharmaceutical company which is manufacturing a swine flu vaccine. The pressure to bring this product to market is intense.

  • The first production batches have been made.

  • But first you have to meet the product specifications.


Swine flu specifications
Swine Flu Specifications

  • Color Colorless

  • Appearance Free of visible particulate

  • Assay 5 mg/mL (HPLC)

  • pH 7.4

  • Heavy metals Less than 10 ppm

    The product passes, except for color – the product has a slight yellow tinge


Disaster
Disaster!

  • QC sends it to you to figure it out

  • They require an answer within 24 hours


What would you do
What would you do?

Instrumentation available to you

  • Infrared spectrometer with ATR

  • Mass spectrometer

  • NMR, 400 MHz

  • XRF

  • ICP-OES

  • Fluorimeter


Considerations
Considerations

  • What might be causing the color?

  • What concentrations should you look for?

  • Sample prep?



Industrial espionage
Industrial Espionage!

  • You have been hired to perform some clandestine analytical work.

  • Your task: to determine the components of fireworks made in China so the product can be copied.

  • You have several products to analyze; you need to determine the explosives, colorants and oxidizers.


What would you do1
What would you do?

Instrumentation available to you

  • UV-visible spectrometer

  • Infrared spectrometer

  • Raman spectrometer

  • GC/MS

  • Atomic absorption


Considerations1
Considerations

  • What types of materials do you need to identify?

  • Do you need quantitation?

  • Safety



Patent infringement
Patent Infringement

  • Your patent for a new drug to treat psittacosis has been challenged for infringement.

  • The challenger believes the actual structure of your drug (an antibiotic) is not what the patent claims it is.

  • You need to respond within 30 days.


What would you do2
What would you do?

Instrumentation available to you

  • Fluorescence

  • Mass spec

  • NMR

  • Infrared

  • ICP-MS

  • X-ray fluorescence

  • X-ray diffraction


Considerations2
Considerations

  • What aspects of the structure need to be proved?

  • How close is close?

  • Could sample prep affect structure?



Product tampering
Product Tampering

  • A consumer has returned a bottle of tablets that were purchased recently that are suspected of having been tampered with.

  • Your job is to determine whether product tampering is likely.


Product tampering1
Product Tampering

  • The product container

    • Outer box

      • Lot number, expiration date?

      • Any tears, signs of re-glue?

    • Bottle holding tablets

      • Has it been opened previously?

      • Number of tablets present?

  • The tablets

    • Size / shape / color?

    • Markings?

    • Composition?


What would you do3
What would you do?

Instrumentation available to you

  • Infrared

  • Raman

  • ICP-OES

  • GC/MS

  • NMR (60 MHz)

  • X-ray diffraction


Considerations3
Considerations

  • Sensitivity: How sensitive do you need to be to ensure that no adulteration has occurred?

  • Quantitation

  • Comparison to a retain of good product



Art authentication
Art Authentication

  • It was only a small garage sale, but you found a heavily damaged painting in a handsome frame. You buy it for the frame.

  • Once you get it home and inspect it, the painting reminds you of a Van Gogh.

  • Is it possible????


What would you do4
What Would You Do?

  • Instrumentation available to you

    • Infrared

    • Raman

    • ICP-OES

    • GC/MS

    • XRF


Art authentication1
Art Authentication

  • What can a chemist do to “authenticate” artwork?

  • What components could you analyze?

  • How do you get samples for analysis?

  • Can you perform in situ analysis? Non-destructive analysis?

  • How deeply into the painting should you go?

  • Once you get the analysis, what do you do with it?


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