Overview of
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 43

Bradley Veile Holocaust Museum Fellow Alfred Lerner Fellow [email protected] PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 101 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Overview of the Holocaust. Bradley Veile Holocaust Museum Fellow Alfred Lerner Fellow [email protected] Holocaust. Refers to a specific genocidal event in the 20 th century history Defined:

Download Presentation

Bradley Veile Holocaust Museum Fellow Alfred Lerner Fellow [email protected]

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Bradley veile holocaust museum fellow alfred lerner fellow veile brad lakesidesch

Overview of

the Holocaust

Bradley Veile

Holocaust Museum Fellow

Alfred Lerner Fellow

[email protected]


Bradley veile holocaust museum fellow alfred lerner fellow veile brad lakesidesch

Holocaust

Refers to a specific genocidal event in the 20th century history

Defined:

the state-sponsored systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945 - USHMM


Hitler rise

Rejected Austrian artist

WW I veteran

Treaty of Versailles

Beer Hall Putchz

Leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi)

Multi-party system

National Elections

Nazi party wins plurality of 33%

Hindenburg names Hitler chancellor

Constitutional freedoms suspended

Hitler’ Rise

Germany


Targeted groups

Targeted Groups

  • Jews

  • Soviet Prisoners

  • Sinti and Roma

  • Handicapped

  • Jehovah Witnesses

  • Communists and enemies of the state

  • Homosexuals and a-socials


But won t there be a negative outcry from world leaders

But won’t there be a negative outcry from world leaders?

“Who, after all, speaks of the annihilation of the Armenians?” – Adolf Hitler


Selected nazi legislation 1930s

1933

One day boycott of Jewish shop

1935

Nuremberg Laws

Jews lost citizenship

Jew/Aryan marriage outlawed

1938

Jews carry ID cards

Jewish street names replaced

Passports marked with “J”

Jews barred from streets on Nazi holidays

1939

Curfew for Jews

Jews turn in radios

Polish Jews required to wear Star of David

All Jews must have a Jewish first name – Sarah or Israel added if necessary

SelectedNaziLegislation - 1930s


Selected nazi legislation 1940s

1940

German Jews into “protective custody’

Income tax to support Nazi party

1941

German Jews wear Star of David

Police permission needed to leave residence

Friendly relations with Jews prohibited

1942

Turn in all wool and fur clothing

Apartments marked as Jewish

Not use public transportation

Not buy meat, eggs, milk

Not have birds, dogs, cats, etc.

Blind & deaf not wear identifying armbands in traffic

1943

Jewish criminals sent to extermination camps

Selected Nazi Legislation – 1940s


Kristallnacht november 1938

Attache von Rathe shot and killed by Grynszpan, a Jew

Demonstrations end with Jewish shops destroyed and looted

267 Synagogues burned or desecrated

91 people killed others beaten, 30,000 arrested

1 billion RM fine on Jews

Jews pay own repairs

FDR recall US Ambassador to Germany

KristallnachtNovember 1938


Nazi propaganda

Nazi Propaganda

The Poisonous Mushroom

"The result! A loss of racial pride."


Eugenics

Eugenics

  • Selective breeding – basis for Master Race

  • Sterilize unfit parents and potential parents

  • Euthanize “life unworthy of life”

  • Operation T-4

    • Disabled killed

    • Starve, injections, gassings

Cemetery at Hadamar


Refugee issue

Refugee Issue

So who will take in the Jews?


Kinder transports december 1938 september 1939

Kinder TransportsDecember 1938 – September 1939

  • 10,000 unaccompanied Jewish children enter Great Britain

  • Children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia

  • Most never see parents again

  • Many were converted to Christianity

Children in the Netherlands shortly before evacuation to London


Voyage of the st louis may 1939

Voyage of the St. LouisMay 1939

  • Departed Hamburg for Havana - May 15, 1939

  • 937 passengers almost all Jewish

  • 29 allowed into Cuba

  • Ship forced to leave Cuba

  • Passengers eventually divided between:

    England Netherlands

    FranceBelgium

  • Most killed by Nazis

Passengers attempt to communicate with friends and relatives in Cuba


Evian july 1939

EvianJuly 1939

  • Meeting called by FDR

  • Resort on Lake Geneva

  • 32 Countries attend

  • Discuss Jewish Refugees

  • No country was willing to accept refugees

  • Costa Rica and Dominican Republic would accept a small number for a large sum of money

postcard of Evian-les-Bains

“Green Light Go” – New York Times


Nazi goal expansion for lebensraum living space

Nazi Goal: Expansion for “Lebensraum” – Living Space

  • Rhineland

  • Austrian Anschluss

  • Sudetenland

  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

  • Invasion of Poland – WW II begins


Wannsee conference january 20 1942

Wannsee Conference January 20, 1942

  • Villa in a affluent suburb of Berlin

  • Meeting lasts less than 90 minutes

  • 15 officials – 8 have PHD’s

  • Euphemisms

    • “Special treatment”

    • “Bath house”

    • “Arbeit Macht Frei”

    • “Final solution”

Villa at Wannsee


Resettlement to the east

Resettlement to the East

  • Crowded cattle cars

  • One suitcase of belongings

  • People gathered:

    • volunteers

    • forced

    • “actions”

    • transit centers

    • ghettos

  • Destination:

    • ghettos

    • camps

Train car used in transport - Yad Vashem


Ghettos

Ghettos

  • Ghettos established by decree on Sept. 21, 1939

  • Goals

    • Isolation

    • Forced labor

    • Access murder/deportation

  • Conditions

    • Life directed by Judenrat

    • Overcrowded

    • Unsanitary/disease infested

    • Starvation rations

Warsaw Ghetto Wall

Street in Warsaw Ghetto


Types of camps

Types of Camps

  • Concentration

  • Forced-labor

  • Transit

  • Extermination or “Death Camps”


Dachau established march 22 1933

Dachauestablished March 22, 1933

Barracks with “beautification project “ –

line of trees on the right


Mauthausen established august 8 1938

Mauthausenestablished August 8, 1938

“Stairs of Death”

Carrying stones up the “Stairs of Death


Westerbork german control july 21 1942

WesterborkGerman control July 21 , 1942

Train depot inside the camp

Camp blueprint


Auschwitz birkenau established may 20 1940

Auschwitz-Birkenauestablished May 20, 1940

Zyklon B Label –

used for gassings

Aerial view of Birkenau


Perpetrators

Perpetrators

  • Nazi SS – Schutzstaffel

    • Death Head’s Unit

    • Heinrich Himmler

    • Adolf Eichmann

    • Joseph Mengele

  • Einsatzgruppen

    • Special action group

    • 3000 troops in 4 units

    • Goal: make German controlled areas “judenrein”

  • Heinrich Himmler


Einsaztgruppen

Einsaztgruppen

Execution of a group of Soviet civilians

Execution of a Ukrainian Jew


Collaborators

Collaborators

  • Indigenous police forces in France and Netherlands

  • Hungarian troops/fascists

  • Slovakian Hlinka Guard

  • Ustasa – Croatian Nationalists

  • Anti-Soviet elements in:

    • Ukraine

    • Estonia

    • Latvia

    • Lithuania

Ustasa militia execute prisoners near Jasenovac camp


Bystanders

Bystanders

  • Person who is present, without being involved, at an incident where another life or dignity is in danger

  • Did people living near camps know what was happening?

  • What actions could have been taken to stop the Holocaust?

  • What risks were involved in taking a stand against the Nazis?

Two German women file past corpses at newly liberated Buchenwald


Victims

Victims

  • “Not all victims were Jews but, all Jews were victims” –Wiesel

    • 6,000,000 Jews

    • 3,000,000 Soviet POWs

    • 3,000,000 Catholic Poles

    • 700,000 Serbs

    • 250,000 Sinti & Roma

    • 70,000 Handicapped

    • 12,000 Homosexual

    • 2,500 Jehovah Winesses

      Each number is anINDIVIDUAL with goals, dreams, and families

Mania Halef, age 2

killed at Babi Yar


Resistance

Resistance

Opposition to Hitler and Nazi ideology took many different paths which shared a common destination.


Partisans

Partisans

  • Underground

    • Oppose Nazis

    • Many were anti-Semitic

    • Selective membership

  • Bielski Brigade

    • Open Jewish membership

    • Included all ages and genders

  • White Rose

    • Students at University of Munich

  • Various Political Factions

Kalinin Jewish partisan unit (Bielski group)


Spiritual

Spiritual

  • Prayer Groups

  • Torah Studies

  • Religious Services

  • Kosher Tradition

  • Observance of Holidays

  • Religious Literature

  • Maintain the will to live

clandestine school in the Kovno ghetto


Cultural

Cultural

  • Art

  • Music

    • Concerts

    • Cabarets

    • Operas

  • Plays

  • Literature

  • Schools/Libraries

  • Language

    • Yiddish

    • Hebrew

prisoners' orchestra in Buchenwald


Hiding

Hiding

  • Bunkers

  • Concerns

    • Health

    • Age

    • Supplies

    • Secrecy

    • Assistance

    • Denouncing

  • Generosity of Others

hiding place for Dutch Jews


Passing

Passing

  • Physical appearance

  • Cultural norms

  • Language

  • New residency

  • Name

  • Family history

  • Societal expectations

Vladka Meed in Warsaw


Righteous among the nations

Righteous Among the Nations

Gentiles who risked their own lives to save Jews; honored at Yad Vashem

  • Raoul Wallenberg

  • Oskar Schindler

  • Corrie Ten Boom

  • Miep Gies

  • Varian Fry (only American)

Raoul Wallenberg

Oskar Schindler with Ludmila Pfefferberg-Page


Hiding destroying evidence

Hiding/Destroying Evidence

  • Distribution of confiscated belongings

  • Transport stockpiled belongings and valuables

  • Dismantle camps

  • Physical destruction of Auschwitz-Birkenau crematoriums

Destroyed Crematorium in Birkenau


Death marches

Death Marches

  • Forced marches to interior of the German Reich

  • killed for impeding progress

  • Death toll: 250,000 - 375,000

    Starvation Wounded

    Sick Exposure

  • Those considered unable to survive the march left behind

    • Otto Frank in Auschwitz

death march from Dachau to Wolfratshausen


Now the world knows

Now the world knows

Russia Majdanek July 23, 1944

Auschwitz January 27, 1945

British Bergen-Belsen April 15, 1945

America Dachau April 29, 1945

Germany Hitler suicide April 30, 1945

America Mauthausen May 5, 1945

VE Day WW II Ends May 8, 1945


After the war

After the War


Displaced persons

Displaced persons

Those who did not want to be repatriated placed in DP Camps

  • German Army barracks

  • POW camps

  • Concentration Camps

    • Bergen-Belsen

    • Dachau

  • 1957 Last DP Camp closed - located in Belgium

vocational training in displaced persons camp


Bringing perpetrators to justice

Bringing perpetrators to justice

Nuremberg defendants

Eichmann receives death sentence in Jerusalem

Amon Goeth

Plaszow camp

  • International military tribunal

    Crimes against humanity & peaceWar crimesConspiracy

    161 convictions

  • Trials within individual countries


Some holocaust legacies

Anti-Semitism

Common tie between hate groups

White supremacist organizations

Political ideologies tied to Nazi Philosophy

Hate Crimes

Establishment of Israel

UN acknowledgement of genocidal issues

Importance of civil rights and individual freedoms

Human Rights Organizations

Holocaust Centers and Museums

Some Holocaust Legacies


Share the lessons so never again truly means never again

Share the lessons so“Never Again”TRULY means“Never Again”


  • Login