The progressive era
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The Progressive Era. 1890 – 1920. Progressivism. What is it? Time of reforms. PROGRESSIVISM. Civi l Rights. Suffragettes. Muckrackers. Temperance. Labor Unions. M i d c l a s s W o m e n. Popul ists. Civi l S e r v i c e. Origins of Progressivism. Who?

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The Progressive Era

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The progressive era

The Progressive Era

1890 – 1920


Progressivism

Progressivism

  • What is it?

    • Time of reforms


The progressive era

PROGRESSIVISM

CivilRights

Suffragettes

Muckrackers

Temperance

Labor

Unions

MidclassWomen

Popul

ists

Civi

l

S

e

r

v

i

c

e


Origins of progressivism

Origins of Progressivism


The progressive era

  • Who?

    • Middle class, various political parties, ethnic & religious groups

  • How?

    • Use logic and reason to make society better

    • Force fed. & state govs. to enact laws to address issues


The muckrakers

The Muckrakers


The progressive era

  • Who are they?

    • Writers

  • Why?

    • Dramatized their writings in the need for reform

    • Fascinated with the ugly side of things?


Examples of muckrakers

Examples ofMuckrakers


Lincoln steffens

Lincoln Steffens

  • Writer

    • McClure’s magazine

      • Editor

  • Focus

    • Political corruption

    • The Shame of the Cities


Jacob riis

Jacob Riis

  • Photographer

    • NY Evening Sun

  • Focus

    • Tenement housing

    • How the Other Half Lives


Ida tarbell

Ida Tarbell

  • Journalist

  • Focus

    • Break monopolies

    • John D. Rockefeller

    • The History of Standard Oil


John spargo

John Spargo

  • Writer

  • Union Organizer

  • Socialist

  • Focus

    • Child Workers

    • The Bitter Cry of the Children


David g phillips

David G Phillips

  • Writer

    • Cosmopolitan

  • “Treason of the Senate”

  • Focus: Political Corruption

    • Charged that 75 of the 90 Senators did not represent the people, but the railroads and trusts


Ray stannard baker

Ray Stannard Baker

  • Writer

  • “Following the Line”

  • Focus

    • Minorities Treatment

    • Subjugation of 9 mil. African Amer.

      • 90% still lived in South

      • 1/3 were still illiterate


Upton sinclair

Upton Sinclair

  • Writer

  • Focus

    • Meatpacking industry

    • The Jungle


Society reforming cities

Society:Reforming Cities


Concerns with cities society

Concerns with Cities & Society

  • Poverty

  • Tenement housing

  • Overcrowded

  • Sanitation

  • Education

  • Poor health


1 poverty

1. Poverty

  • Caused by the decrease in wages

  • 1900 – 10 mil. men & 7.4 mil. women who worked – still lived in poverty

    Settlement Houses

  • Hull House – Jane Addams

    • Improve education, sanitation, and housing for poor communities


2 housing

2. Housing

New York Tenement House Law

  • 1901

  • Outlawed construction of dark & airless tenements

  • Must have better ventilation, toilets, & running water


3 overcrowding

3. Overcrowding

National Conference of City Planning and Congestion

  • Get rid of unsafe housing

  • Develop more parks

  • Improve public education

  • Enforce building codes, zoning laws, & sanitation standards


4 sanitation

4. Sanitation

Civil & Sanitation Engineers

  • Pave the streets

  • Improve water supply, waste disposal & air pollution


5 education concerns

5. Education Concerns

  • Most immigrants are uneducated

  • Can only get unskilled jobs

    • Lower pay

  • Criticized by John Dewey

    • Memorization vs. Creativity


Solutions for education

Solutions for Education

  • Broaden High School Courses

    • Health, citizenship, & job training

  • Kindergarten Programs

    • Taught basis skills

  • New Teaching Philosophies

    • Critical thinking

    • Problem-solving skills


6 concerns with medicine

6. Concerns with Medicine

  • Lack well-trained & professionally organized doctors

  • Decrease in health

    • Malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, & yellow fever


Solutions for medicine

Solutions for Medicine

  • American Medical Association – AMA

    • Local medical organizations

    • Support laws protecting public health


Civil service reform

Civil ServiceReform


Pendleton civil service act

Pendleton Civil Service Act

  • 1883

  • Civil service

    • Federal jobs in the executive branch

    • Jobs were handed out in spoils system

  • Jobs now based on merit & qualifications

  • Reduced the power of the spoils system


Labor

Labor


Goals concerning labor

Goals Concerning Labor

Unions

  • Fought for collective rights of workers

    • Increase Wages

    • Safer Working Conditions

    • Shorter Work Day

    • Benefits

  • Membership soared

    • 1899: 600,000 / 1900: 5 million


The progressive era

  • Wages

  • Main cause – poverty

    • 1900: 1/3 of 30 mil. men & 7.4 mil. women who worked – lived in poverty

    • Minimum wage?


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