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Sparta and Athens. Sparta Beginnings. Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states True Spartans were outnumbered

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sparta beginnings
SpartaBeginnings
  • Descendents of the Dorians
  • Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece
  • Did not found overseas colonies
  • Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states
  • True Spartans were outnumbered
  • Revolt of the Helots (slaves) lasted 30 years and turned Sparta into military society
sparta government
SpartaGovernment
  • Two kings ruled jointly with little power
  • Assembly: passed laws and made decisions concerning war and peace
  • Five overseers of administration
  • Council of Elders who proposed laws and acted as Supreme Court
sparta military
SpartaMilitary
  • Emphasis on military/athletic ability
  • Military school by age 7
  • Soldier by age 20
  • Retire from military by age 60
  • Exceptional soldiers who defended Greece from outside invaders
sparta women
SpartaWomen
  • Schooled, sports
  • Could own property, move freely, express opinions
  • Could not take part in the government
sparta results of militarism
Sparta Results of Militarism
  • Suspicious of new ideas that might bring change
  • Lagged behind economically
  • Discouraged trade
  • Tried to remain self-reliant
  • Shunned philosophy, science, art
athens beginnings
AthensBeginnings
  • Located in Attica, peninsula of central Greece
  • Descended from the Mycenaeans
  • Named after Goddess Athena
  • 600’s BC -Farmers, merchants, artisans pushed for economic and political reform
  • In beginning citizenship was narrow but eventually included all free Athenian-born men, regardless of class or land ownership
  • Metics -free foreigners
athens education
AthensEducation
  • Boys formal education, girls had none
  • Text: The Illiad and the Odyssy
  • School attended from age 7 - 18
  • Two years of military service
  • Tutors for the wealthy
athenian leaders draco 621 bc
Athenian LeadersDraco (621 BC)
  • First of four leaders to make change in government
  • Code of Laws

-very severe - ‘Draconian’ -Laws written so aristocrats could not dictate what was legal or not

solon 594 bc
Solon (594 BC)
  • Second leader poet/lawmaker
  • Improved economy -canceled land debt -freed debtors from prison -placed land limits -cash crops promoted trade -industry where fathers teach sons skills -extended citizenship to foreign artisans
peisistratus 546 bc
Peisistratus (546 BC)
  • Divided large land estates among landless
  • Extended citizenship to men who did not own land
  • Poor provided with loans
  • Public works for poor
cleisthenes 508 bc
Cleisthenes (508 BC)
  • Instituted series of laws that established democracy (affected 20% -excluded women, slaves, foreign born)
  • Equal treatment under the law
  • Freedom of speech
  • Passed laws; appointed generals
  • Jury system (20 to 1001) -kept jurors from being influenced -majority vote -ostracism: exclusion/exile
  • Council of 500 -daily government business -any citizen (chosen by lot so not to favor rich)
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