Sparta and athens
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Sparta and Athens. Sparta Beginnings. Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states True Spartans were outnumbered

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Sparta and Athens

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Sparta and athens

Sparta and Athens


Sparta beginnings

SpartaBeginnings

  • Descendents of the Dorians

  • Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece

  • Did not found overseas colonies

  • Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states

  • True Spartans were outnumbered

  • Revolt of the Helots (slaves) lasted 30 years and turned Sparta into military society


Sparta government

SpartaGovernment

  • Two kings ruled jointly with little power

  • Assembly: passed laws and made decisions concerning war and peace

  • Five overseers of administration

  • Council of Elders who proposed laws and acted as Supreme Court


Sparta military

SpartaMilitary

  • Emphasis on military/athletic ability

  • Military school by age 7

  • Soldier by age 20

  • Retire from military by age 60

  • Exceptional soldiers who defended Greece from outside invaders


Sparta women

SpartaWomen

  • Schooled, sports

  • Could own property, move freely, express opinions

  • Could not take part in the government


Sparta results of militarism

Sparta Results of Militarism

  • Suspicious of new ideas that might bring change

  • Lagged behind economically

  • Discouraged trade

  • Tried to remain self-reliant

  • Shunned philosophy, science, art


Spartan warriors

Spartan Warriors


Athens beginnings

AthensBeginnings

  • Located in Attica, peninsula of central Greece

  • Descended from the Mycenaeans

  • Named after Goddess Athena

  • 600’s BC -Farmers, merchants, artisans pushed for economic and political reform

  • In beginning citizenship was narrow but eventually included all free Athenian-born men, regardless of class or land ownership

  • Metics -free foreigners


Athens education

AthensEducation

  • Boys formal education, girls had none

  • Text: The Illiad and the Odyssy

  • School attended from age 7 - 18

  • Two years of military service

  • Tutors for the wealthy


Athenian leaders draco 621 bc

Athenian LeadersDraco (621 BC)

  • First of four leaders to make change in government

  • Code of Laws

    -very severe - ‘Draconian’ -Laws written so aristocrats could not dictate what was legal or not


Solon 594 bc

Solon (594 BC)

  • Second leader poet/lawmaker

  • Improved economy -canceled land debt -freed debtors from prison -placed land limits -cash crops promoted trade -industry where fathers teach sons skills -extended citizenship to foreign artisans


Peisistratus 546 bc

Peisistratus (546 BC)

  • Divided large land estates among landless

  • Extended citizenship to men who did not own land

  • Poor provided with loans

  • Public works for poor


Cleisthenes 508 bc

Cleisthenes (508 BC)

  • Instituted series of laws that established democracy (affected 20% -excluded women, slaves, foreign born)

  • Equal treatment under the law

  • Freedom of speech

  • Passed laws; appointed generals

  • Jury system (20 to 1001) -kept jurors from being influenced -majority vote -ostracism: exclusion/exile

  • Council of 500 -daily government business -any citizen (chosen by lot so not to favor rich)


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