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Small Animal Science. Dogs Veterinary Technology. Objectives. Identify the external parts and describe the physiology of a dog. Compare and contrast the groups and breeds of dogs. Determine the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs. Objectives.

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Small animal science

Small Animal Science

Dogs

Veterinary Technology


Objectives

Objectives

  • Identify the external parts and describe the physiology of a dog.

  • Compare and contrast the groups and breeds of dogs.

  • Determine the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs.


Objectives1

Objectives

  • Analyze the factors to consider when selecting a dog.

  • Examine dog behaviors and describe management, training, and grooming techniques.


Terms

bitch

carnivore

companion animal

endothermic

grooming

Herding Group

Hound Group

housebreaking

litter

monogastric

Non-sporting Group

puppy

Sporting Group

stud dog

Terms


Terms1

Terrier Group

Toy Group

training

whelping

Working Group

Terms


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • Dogs have been used as companion animals for more than 10,000 years.

  • A companion animal is any domestic animal kept for enjoyment and companionship by humans.

  • There are many facts to learn about the biology and anatomy of dogs.

  • Knowing proper dog terminology is also helpful.


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog1

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • A. The scientific name for dogs is Canis familiaris.

    • Since their family name is Canidae, they are often called canines.

    • The genus is Canis.

  • B. Although most dogs eat processed dog food, they are carnivores by nature.

    • A carnivore is a meat- or flesh-eating animal.

  • C. Dogs are monogastric mammals. Monogastric is having a one-compartment stomach.


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog2

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • D. A mature female dog is a bitch.

    • A mature male dog is a sire or stud dog.

    • The process of a bitch giving birth is whelping.

    • An immature dog of either sex is a puppy.

    • A group of puppies born to the same parents at the same time is a litter.


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog3

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • E. Dogs have skeletal systems with about 320 bones.

    • Large breeds have larger bones, and small breeds have smaller bones.

  • F. Dogs are endothermic, meaning they keep a constant body temperature.

  • G. Dogs can weigh anywhere from less than 6 to more than 200 pounds at maturity, depending on the breed.


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog4

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • H. The external parts of a dog are:

    • 1. Back—The part of the body between the loin and the withers

    • 2. Brisket—The chest

    • 3. Carpals—The wrist; the bones of the pastern joint

    • 4. Dewclaw—The tiny, useless fifth claw on the inner part of the leg above the other toes

    • 5. Eye—Either of two organs of sight found on the head

    • 6. Ear—Either of two fleshy, often triangular appendages found on the head and associated with hearing


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog5

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • 7. Flews—The hanging part of the upper lip

  • 8. Forearm—The part of a foreleg between the elbow and the pastern

  • 9. Forefoot—A front foot

  • 10. Hind foot—A back foot

  • 11. Hip—The joint at the uppermost part of a hind leg

  • 12. Hock—The bones that form the ankle/heel

  • 13. Loin—The part of the body on either side of the backbone between the rib and the hip

  • 14. Muzzle—The front parts of the jaws


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog6

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • 15. Nose—The tip of the muzzle

  • 16. Pastern—The part below the knee of the front leg or below the hock of the hind leg

  • 17. Ruff—The long, thick hair that grows around the neck

  • 18. Shoulder—The joint at the uppermost part of a foreleg

  • 19. Stifle—The knee, located above the ankle on a hind leg


What are the external parts and what is the physiology of a dog7

What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • 20. Stop—The indented part of the skull between the eyes

  • 21. Tail—The hindmost part of the backbone, set on the rump

  • 22. Thigh—The upper part of a hind leg

  • 23. Withers—The top of the shoulders, just behind the neck


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • There are approximately 300 dog breeds. In the United States, the American Kennel Club (AKC) does the classification and record keeping on dog breeds.

  • Based on both use and characteristics, seven dog groups have been identified.

  • Being familiar with the characteristics of the groups and breeds is important when selecting a dog.


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs1

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • A. The Herding Group comprises dogs that are easily trained to help with herding animals, such as sheep and cattle.

  • These dogs need a lot of space because they must run and exercise often.

  • Common breeds include:

    • 1. Australian Cattle Dog

    • 2. Shetland Sheepdog

    • 3. Collie

    • 4. German Shepherd


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs2

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • B. The Sporting Group is composed of dogs used for sporting purposes, like hunting.

  • Some breeds used for retrieving, finding, and scaring out game animals include various types of:

    • 1. Spaniels

    • 2. Retrievers

    • 3. Setters

    • 4. Pointers


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs3

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • C. The Working Group is made up of dogs that help people achieve specific tasks, like protection of property, sled pulling, and police work.

  • They also act as service dogs for persons whose vision or hearing is impaired.

  • Working dog breeds include:

    • 1. Alaskan Malamute

    • 2. Doberman Pinscher

    • 3. Saint Bernard

    • 4. Rottweiler


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs4

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • D. The Hound Group is composed of dogs used for tracking because of their ability to follow scents.

  • Hounds are used by hunters to locate game animals and by law officials to track lost people or people who have escaped from confinement.

  • Examples of breeds in this group include:

    • 1. Beagle

    • 2. Greyhound

    • 3. Basset

    • 4. Dachshund


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs5

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • E. The Terrier Group comprises dogs that dig into the ground to capture their prey.

  • There are 25 breeds of terriers recognized by the AKC.

  • Some examples of terriers are:

    • 1. Miniature Schnauzer

    • 2. Airedale Terrier

    • 3. Scottish Terrier

    • 4. Bull Terrier


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs6

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • F. The Toy Group encompasses dogs that weigh between 4 and 16 pounds.

  • Toy breeds live longer than larger breeds.

  • They desire companionship and are easier to keep in smaller areas because of their size.

  • Some examples of toy breeds are:

    • 1. Chihuahua

    • 2. Toy Fox Terrier

    • 3. Yorkshire Terrier

    • 4. English Toy Spaniel


What are the various groups and breeds of dogs7

What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?

  • G. The Non-sporting Group consists of dogs developed for purposes other than sports, particularly companionship.

  • Breeds include:

    • 1. Dalmatian

    • 2. Bulldog

    • 3. Poodle

    • 4. Lhasa Apso


What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs

What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • Being a dog owner comes with a great deal of responsibility.

  • Certain facilities and equipment are necessary for the proper care, health, and sometimes restraint of a dog.

  • A. A dog requires some of the same facilities as other pets.

    • An indoor dog should be kept in a warm, dry environment except when being taken outside to walk or expel waste.

    • A dog kept indoors will require enough space to move about and will enjoy walking and exploring the house.


What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs1

What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • B. An owner should always research his or her dog breed before keeping the animal outside.

    • Breeds with thicker coats will do better in cold climates but may overheat in the summer.

    • An outdoor dog will require a warm, dry place to sleep or rest, along with a dry location for food and fresh water.

    • Owners should always remember that many dogs love to run, dig, and explore.

    • Keeping a large dog in a small cage is not only inhumane but may also cause stress and aggressiveness in the animal.


What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs2

What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • C. Along with facilities, proper equipment is necessary to provide for a dog.

  • Some pieces of equipment that an owner will find useful are:

  • 1. A strong collar with an identification tag showing the dog’s name, the owner’s name and address, and vaccination information

  • 2. A good leash for walking or restraining the animal


What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs3

What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • 3. A muzzle to keep the dog’s mouth closed if the animal has a tendency to bark or bite

    • a. A muzzle should not be worn all the time but only when the pet may become nervous, such as on a trip to the veterinarian.

  • 4. A good brush to remove shedding hair

  • 5. Proper medications for flea and tick control


What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs4

What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • 6. A set of food and water bowls that are chew-proof and slip- resistant (so they don’t move while the animal is trying to eat or drink)

  • 7. Toys to entertain the dog and give it a chance to chew

    • a. Many dogs have an instinct to chew.

    • By giving a dog toys, the animal will be less likely to exhibit chewing behavior on shoes, furniture, or other belongings.


What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog

What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?

  • Although every dog is different, similarities among breeds should be considered when deciding what type of dog will suit a person and the person’s needs.

  • A. Age of the dog is an important factor.

    • A puppy should be taken between 8 and 12 weeks of age.

    • Acquiring an older dog may be less expensive in the long run if it has already been spayed or neutered.

    • Puppies are cute and cuddly, but they require much more work than older dogs.


What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog1

What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?

  • B. Another consideration is whether to get a purebred or a mixed breed.

    • If a dog with known ancestry is wanted for breeding purposes, a purebred should be chosen.

    • When a purebred is purchased, little guessing is needed on how large the dog will get.

    • Acquiring a mixed breed will usually cost less, but an accurate prediction of the animal’s mature size may not be possible if the dog is a pup.


What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog2

What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?

  • C. The space available should always be looked at in relation to how much space the dog will need at maturity.

    • Some dogs do well indoors, and others need wide-open spaces in which to run if they are to be healthy.

    • In areas of harsh heat or cold, proper protection must be provided for an animal.


What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog3

What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?

  • D. Length of hair is the next consideration.

    • Long-haired dogs not only have more hair to shed, but they are susceptible to more diseases and parasites because of their hair.


What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog4

What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?

  • E. Lastly, gender of the dog should be considered.

    • If the dog is not going to be used for breeding purposes, it should be spayed or neutered.

    • A male dog that has been neutered will be less likely to run away searching for a female dog.

    • Having a female dog spayed will take away the heat cycle and its symptoms.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • Managing, training, and grooming dogs can be time consuming but also very enjoyable.

  • Here are a few simple pointers.

  • A. Management

  • 1. The importance of choosing a dog that is alert and healthy cannot be overemphasized.

  • 2. Finding out what medical attention the animal has had and if vaccinations have been given is essential.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • 3. A dog must always be handled with care and be made to feel secure.

  • 4. The owner must show patience and allow plenty of time for the dog to adjust to its new home.

    • The dog should not be expected to arrive trained to the owner’s liking.

  • 5. The owner should show the dog that it is cared about by properly bathing and grooming it.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • 6. A dog must never be left without fresh water and clean bedding.

  • 7. Since a dog needs plenty of exercise, it must have enough space.

  • 8. Every dog not intended for breeding purposes should be spayed or neutered to prevent unexpected and unwanted litters of puppies.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • B. Training

  • 1. Training is working with a dog to get it to have desirable habits and knowledge.

  • 2. The most common training required is housebreaking.

    • Housebreaking is getting a dog to urinate or defecate in a desired area.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • 3. The owner may also want to teach his or her dog to heel, come, stay, sit, or speak.

    • Obedience schools are organized programs to help get a dog to do things on command.

  • 4. The most important things in any training program are patience, kindness, and rewards to the dog to reinforce positive behaviors.


Small animal science

What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?

  • C. Grooming

  • 1. Grooming is caring for the external appearance of a dog.

  • 2. The owner should comb, trim, and bathe the dog, cut its nails, clean its teeth, and treat minor wounds as necessary.

  • 3. If the dog is to be entered in shows, the owner will need to learn ways to make the animal especially attractive.


Review

Review

  • What are the external parts, and what is the physiology of a dog?

  • What are the various groups and breeds of dogs?


Review1

Review

  • What are the facilities and equipment required for the proper care of dogs?

  • What are the factors to consider when selecting a dog?


Review2

Review

  • What dog behaviors can you expect, and what kinds of management, training, and grooming techniques should be used?


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