Epidemiology of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Dr. Alaa Hassan Assistant professor Community and Family Medicine. The term Extra Pulmonary TB (EPTB) has been used to describe occurrence of tuberculosis at body sites other than the lung Parenchyma . .
Dr. Alaa Hassan
Community and Family Medicine
The term Extra Pulmonary TB (EPTB) has been used to describe occurrence of tuberculosis at body sites other than the lung Parenchyma.
Before the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, EPTB constituted 15 -20 % of all cases of TB .
Sometimes, tonsil is an important portal of entry. The infection then spreads via the lymphatics to the draining cervical lymph nodes
Tuberculosis pleural effusion is categorised as extrapulmonary despite an intimate anatomic relationship between pleura and the lungs
Neurological tuberculosis may be classified into three clinico-pathological categories:
Tuberculosis meningitis TBM accounts for 70 -80 % of cases of neurological tuberculosis.
Neurological involvement is five times more frequent in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients (5:1).
Skeletal tuberculosis is a haematogenous infection and affects almost all bones.
Spinal tuberculosis (TB spine) is the most common form of skeletal tuberculosis.
Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) complicates 3 -4 % of patients with pulmonary TB due to Haematogenous dissemination from an active site of infection.
Most commonly, female genital tuberculosis is secondary to tuberculosis infection elsewhere in the body.
Cutaneous tuberculosis accounts for 0.11 to 2.5 % of all patients with skin diseases.
In patients with HIV infection and AIDS, the lesions may not fit into the above described categories and usually present as papules, nodules, vesicles or induration.
Before the advent of antituberculosis treatment, patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis very often developed laryngeal, otological, nasal and paranasal sinus involvement and deteriorated progressively.
Ocular involvement has described in 2 to 30 % of patients with tuberculosis, and usually develops as a result of haematogenous dissemination.
Disseminated tuberculosis (DTB) refers to involvement of two or more non-contiguous sites.