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Data Communication. Lecture # 05 Course Instructor: Engr. Sana Ziafat. Digital Transmission. Digital to Digital Conversion.

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Data communication

Data Communication

Lecture # 05

Course Instructor:

Engr. Sana Ziafat

Digital transmission

Digital Transmission

Digital to digital conversion

Digital to Digital Conversion

  • The conversion involves three techniques:line coding,block coding, andscrambling. Line coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed.

Line coding decoding

Line Coding & Decoding

Signal levels elements vs data levels elements

Signal Levels (Elements) Vs Data Levels (Elements)

  • Data element is defined as smallest entity to represent piece of information

  • Where as signal element is the shortest unit of digital signal.

  • Data element is actually what we need to end and signal element is what we can send

Signal levels elements vs data levels elements1

Signal Levels (Elements) Vs Data Levels (Elements)

Data communication

“r” is the ratio of data element to signal element

Data rate versus signal rate

Data rate versus signal rate

  • Data rate:

    -Number of data elements sent in one second

    -The unit is bits per second(bps)

  • Signal Rate:

    -Number of signals elements sent in one second.

    -The unit is baud

  • Increase the data rate while decreasing the signal rate.

  • Increasing the data rate increase the speed of data transmission

  • Decreasing the signal rate decrease the bandwidth requirement.

Data rate vs signal rate

Data Rate vs. Signal Rate

  • Increasing the data rate increases the speed of transmission where as increasing the signal rate increases the bandwidth requirement

  • HOW???

Relationship of data rate and signal rate

Relationship of data rate and signal rate

  • S= c* N * 1/r

Pulse rate vs bit rate

Pulse Rate Vs Bit Rate


A signal has two data levels with a pulse duration of 1 ms. We calculate the pulse rate and bit rate as follows:

Pulse Rate = 1/ 10-3= 1000 pulses/s

Bit Rate = Pulse Rate x log2 L = 1000 x log2 2 = 1000 bps

Data communication


A signal is carrying data in which one data element is encoded as one signal element ( r = 1). If the bit rate is 100 kbps, what is the average value of the baud rate if c is between 0 and 1?


We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 . The baud rate is then

Important characteristics of line coding

Important Characteristics of line coding

  • No of signal levels

  • Bit rate verses baud rate

  • DC components

  • Noise immunity

  • Error detection

  • Synchronization

  • Cost of implementation

Dc component

DC Component

Lack of synchronization

Lack of Synchronization

Data communication


In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 Kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps?


At 1 Kbps:

1000 bits sent 1001 bits received1 extra bps

At 1 Mbps:

1,000,000 bits sent 1,001,000 bits received1000 extra bps

Line coding schemes

Line Coding Schemes

Data communication


In unipolar encoding, we use only one voltage level.

Unipolar nrz encoding

UnipolarNRZ Encoding

Characteristics of unipolar signal

Characteristics of Unipolar Signal

  • It uses only one polarity of voltage level

  • Bit rate same as data rate

  • Dc component present

  • Lack of synchronization for long sequence of 0’s & 1’s.

  • Simple but obsolete

Data communication


In polar encoding, we use two voltage levels: positive & negative

Polar nrz l and nrz i encoding

Polar: NRZ-L and NRZ-I Encoding

Data communication


In NRZ-L the level of the voltage determines the value of the bit.

In NRZ-I the inversion or the lack of inversion determines the value of the bit.

Both have average signal rate of N/2 baud.

Problems associated with nrz l nrz i

Problems Associated with NRZ-L & NRZ-I

  • Synchronization problem

  • Dc component problem

  • Sudden change of polarity in system (for case of NRZ-L)

Polar rz encoding

Polar: RZ Encoding

Polar manchester encoding

Polar: Manchester Encoding

Polar differential manchester encoding

Polar: Differential Manchester Encoding

Data communication


In Manchester and differential Manchester encoding, the transition

at the middle of the bit is used for synchronization.

Data communication


In bipolar encoding, we use three levels: positive, zero, and negative.

Bipolar schemes ami and pseudo ternary

Bipolar schemes: AMI and pseudo ternary

  • AMI: Alternate Mark Inversion

    • It uses three voltage levels

    • Unlike RZ 0 level is used to represent a 0

    • Binary 1’s are represented by alternating positive and negative.

  • Pseudoternary

    • variation of AMI encoding in which 1 bit is encoded as zero voltage level and 0 bit is encoded as alternating positive and negative voltages





Chapter 4 (B. A Forouzan)

Section 4.1

Data communication

Q & A

Assignment 1


  • Draw the graphs for all encoding techniques learnt in this lecture, using each of following data stream.





  • What is the Nyquist sampling rate for each of the following signals?

    a. A low pass signal with bandwidth of 300 KHz?

    b. A band pass signal with bandwidth of 300KHz if the lowest frequency is 100 KHz?

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