The central nervous system
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The Central Nervous System. Neuron. The basic functional unit of the CNS Exhibits excitability Exhibits conductivity . Synapse. The microscopic gap separating neurons. Neurotransmitters.

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Neuron
Neuron

  • The basic functional unit of the CNS

  • Exhibits excitability

  • Exhibits conductivity


Synapse

  • The microscopic gap separating neurons


Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters

  • A chemical substance capable of transmitting an impulse across the synaptic cleft

  • Contained in small sacs called vesicles


Variety of neurotransmitters
Variety of neurotransmitters

  • Cause acute CNS reaction

  • Small molecule

  • Rapidly acting

    Which are these?


Answers
ANSWERS:

  • Acetylcholine

  • Dopamine, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin

  • Asparate, Gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA), Glutamate, Glycine


Variety of neurotransmitters1
Variety of neurotransmitters:

  • Causes prolonged CNS reactions

  • Large molecule

  • Slow acting

    Which are these?


Answers1
Answers:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

  • Insulin


Factors
Factors:

  • Synaptic fatigue

  • Upregulation

  • Downregulation


Dysfunction
Dysfunction

  • Excessive stimulation:

    1. Muscle cramps

    2. Convulsions

    3. Psychotic symptoms

    4. Hallucinations

    5. Tension


And........

  • Depression results in:

    1. Decreased levels of consciousness

    2. Respiratory depression


Narcotics and analgesics
Narcotics and Analgesics

  • Mechanism of action:

    Bind to opiod receptors on cell membranes of specific neurons in the brain resulting in decreased pain


Analgesics antipyretics
Analgesics & Antipyretics

  • Mechanism of action:

    Inactivates cyclooxegenayse which prevents prostaglandin formation


Sedatives hypnotics
Sedatives & Hypnotics

  • Barbiturates

  • Benzodiazepines

  • Nonbarbiturates & Nonbenzodiazepines


Mechanism of action

Barbiturates

Inhibits function

of nerve cells

Benzodiazepines

Bind with receptors to increase the effects of GABA

Mechanism of Action


Antianxiety drugs
Antianxiety Drugs

  • Benzodiazepines are the most common

  • Mechanism of action:

    Facilitate the inhibitory effects of GABA


Antidepressant drugs
Antidepressant Drugs

  • Types of drugs:

    1. Tricyclic antidepressants

    2. SSRI

    3. MAOI


Mechanism of action1
Mechanism of Action

  • Increases the amount of neurotransmitters (serotonin & epinephrine)


Antipsychotics
Antipsychotics

  • Treats psychotic processes

  • Mechanism of action:

    Decreases the effects of Dopamine by occupying receptor sites


Anticonvulsants
Anticonvulsants

  • Treats seizure disorders

  • Mechanism of action is unclear

    May:

    1. Decreases neuronal excitability

    2. Prevents spread of impulses


Alcohol
Alcohol

  • Depresses the CNS

  • Rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestines

  • Quickly distributed to all body tissues


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