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Scope Statement. Identify and explain the various methods of euthanasia and options for disposal of animal carcasses and address the operational, safety, and emotional elements associated with these activities. Terminal Learning Objective.

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Scope statement

Scope Statement

Identify and explain the various methods of euthanasia and options for disposal of animal carcasses and address the operational, safety, and emotional elements associated with these activities.


Terminal learning objective

Terminal Learning Objective

Identify euthanasia and disposal measures that control, prevent the spread of, and eradicate animal disease.


Enabling learning objectives

Enabling Learning Objectives

4-1List effective methods and resources used for animal carcass disposal during an animal disease event.

4-2Identify personnel safety concerns associated with euthanasia and disposal procedures.

4-3Review the process of indemnification based on fair market value of destroyed animals and materials.

4-4Describe the content of on-site educational materials that will be provided to producers, farmers, and responders.


Euthanasia activities incident command

Euthanasia Activities &Incident Command


Health and safety considerations

Health and Safety Considerations

How does the safety officer assist command?

  • Monitors and observes risks unique to agriculture

  • Alters, suspends or terminates unsafe acts or conditions


Safety issues

Safety Issues

  • Walking and working surfaces

  • Slips, trips, and falls

  • Heavy equipment operations

  • Trench operations

  • Animal restraint equipment

  • Nighttime operations

  • Burning operations

  • Working with animals

  • Euthanasia procedures

  • Heat and/or cold stress

  • Fatigue

  • Mental and physical stress

  • Working in inclement weather


Euthanasia team safety

Euthanasia Team Safety

  • Size and body weight of animals

  • Temperament of the species

  • Animals generally regarded as dangerous

  • Obscure operator vision and excessive noise

  • Animals’ familiarity with humans

  • Presence and demeanor of animal owner


Coping with traumatic events

Coping with Traumatic Events

  • Any person exposed to depopulation and disposal operations may suffer negative impacts and manifest in one or more of the following areas:

    • Physical symptoms

    • Cognitive or thought disturbances

    • Emotional changes

    • Behavioral changes


Animal welfare and handling

Animal Welfare and Handling

  • Euthanasia methods must be humane, safe, and appropriate to the species involved

  • Guidance from Section 4 of AVMA Guidelines


Humane animal handling

Humane Animal Handling

  • Animal handling help may be recruited from the local community

    • assistants should be briefed in safe work practices and non-abusive animal handling techniques

  • Euthanasia Team Leaders will require additional personnel to accomplish their mission


How are appraisal and indemnification accomplished

How are appraisal and indemnification accomplished?

  • Prior to euthanasia the animals should be appraised

  • Confirmed by an animal heath authority

  • Fair market value utilized


Euthanasia

Euthanasia

Process uses five common steps

  • Select most appropriate method

  • Select a site for euthanasia

  • Assess and request resources needed

  • Implement euthanasia

  • Withdraw from premises and prepare C&D and support to producer or farm


Physical methods euthanasia

Physical Methods Euthanasia

  • Captive bolt

    • Most practical in a mass euthanasia situation

  • Gunshot

    • method of choice for loose housed animals

    • where physical restraint is impractical or unavailable

Gunshot to the heart is not an approved AVMA method for euthanasia


Chemical methods

Chemical Methods

  • Carbon dioxide

    • Method of choice for swine and small ruminants

    • Concentrations above 25%

  • Water-based foam

    • Rapid and humane

    • Floor-raised poultry

  • Anesthetic Overdose

    • Animals closely associated with owners


Euthanasia site selection

Euthanasia Site Selection

  • Facilitate with carcass removal process

  • Located on level ground

    • Animal breaks loose

    • Allow heavy equipment

  • Construction of portable confinement and road access


Assessing needs

Assessing Needs

Euthanasia decisions are based on several factors:

  • Location of animals to euthanize

  • Disease agent involved

  • Animal species involved

  • Number & size of animals


Assessing needs1

Assessing Needs

Euthanasia decisions are based on several factors:

  • Training, experience, skill of personnel

  • Equipment and supplies available

  • Emotional impact of euthanasia procedure

  • Personnel safety

  • Public perception


Implementation of euthanasia

Implementation of Euthanasia

  • Protection of the public and responder

    • Adverse effect on consumers

    • PIO prepared to address public

    • Media requests through JIC

    • Law enforcement reroute traffic

  • Administering euthanasia

    • Proper training for personnel

    • Very physically demanding

    • Local assistance such as slaughterhouse


Concluding euthanasia

Concluding Euthanasia

  • May last hours or several days

  • Euthanasia team heavily contaminated

  • Extensive cleaning and disinfecting for team, equipment, and premises


Introduction to animal disposal

Introduction to Animal Disposal

Occurs simultaneously with euthanasia using five common steps

  • Select appropriate disposal method

  • Assess and request resources

  • Site for disposal

  • Implement disposal

  • Secure the site


Common disposal methods

Common Disposal Methods

Burial onsite is preferred method of disposal

  • Trench

    • More expeditious and inexpensive

  • Landfill

    • Concern for public opposition

    • Arrangements made in advance

  • Mass burial sites

    • Systems to collect gas and leachate

Recommended to lance the stomachs of ruminants allowing gases to escape before burial


Common disposal methods1

Common Disposal Methods

  • Composting

    • Requires abundant oxygen

    • Deactivates disease from temperature and pH

    • Requires well drained area away from water source

    • Security from scavenger species

    • Downwind of residences

  • Incineration

    • Open air burning

    • Air-curtain incineration


Other disposal methods

Other Disposal Methods

  • Rendering

    • Transportation

    • Capacity

    • Cleaning and Disinfection

  • Methane digestion

    • Dairy farms

    • Co-generation facilities

Rendering least used option due to capacity and transportation issues


Site selection

Site Selection

  • Burial site selected using GIS and soil surveys

  • Maps identify three typical zones

    • Exclusion zone

    • Cautionary or limited zones

    • Acceptable zones


Assess and request disposal resources

Assess and Request Disposal Resources

  • Information needed to dispatch Disposal Team

    • Number and size of animals

    • Carcass location and disposal site location

    • Inventory of on-farm equipment available to assist

    • Estimate of heavy equipment operators needed

    • Obstacles to ingress and egress on site


Implementing disposal

Implementing Disposal

  • Choose method using best industry, scientific, and regulatory practices

  • Plans should identify method long before need arises

  • Disposal site security

    • People and animal scavengers

  • Environmental impact and continuous monitoring after incident


Summary

Summary

  • Euthanasia and disposal is critical to reduce spread of disease

  • Animal restraint and depopulation must be humane

  • Personal safety is paramount in all activities

  • Disposal occurs simultaneously with euthanasia

  • Disposal options will depend upon characteristics of the premises and regulatory requirements


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