Foundations unit review 8000 bce to 600 ce
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

Foundations Unit Review 8000 BCE to 600 CE PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 164 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Foundations Unit Review 8000 BCE to 600 CE. Foundations Key Developments. Agricultural Revolution Rise and fall of River Valley Civilizations Rise and fall of Classical Civilizations Spread of Religion Interaction and Exchange. Agricultural Revolution 8000 BCE.

Download Presentation

Foundations Unit Review 8000 BCE to 600 CE

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Foundations unit review 8000 bce to 600 ce

Foundations Unit Review8000 BCE to 600 CE


Foundations key developments

Foundations Key Developments

  • Agricultural Revolution

  • Rise and fall of River Valley Civilizations

  • Rise and fall of Classical Civilizations

  • Spread of Religion

  • Interaction and Exchange


Agricultural revolution 8000 bce

Agricultural Revolution 8000 BCE

  • Small groups of settlers grew into kinship-based villages that practiced crop cultivation and domestication of animals

  • Tools and inventions helped villages stabilize/grow

    • Did not happen at once - in many places at different times

    • Led to increased population and rise of civilizations

    • Separation developed between agriculturalists (civilizations) and pastoralist/nomadic peoples

      * Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)


Impact of agricultural revolution

Impact of Agricultural Revolution

  • Status of women in society declined

    • Women pre-farming were food gatherers, men hunted

    • After agriculture, political and economic lives controlled by men – community leaders, warriors, priest, traders, etc.

  • Formation of communities

    • People needed to work together – defense, irrigation

  • Complex religious rituals developed – nature worship

  • Environmental impact – land, water, animals


Rise of civilizations

Rise of Civilizations

  • Agricultural surplus

  • Job specialization

  • Development of government

  • Social hierarchies and inequality

  • Advanced cities

  • Technology

  • System of writing


River valley civilizations 3000 bce to 1500 bce

River Valley Civilizations 3000 BCE to 1500 BCE


River valley civilizations

River Valley Civilizations

Egypt

Regular flooding

Village society

Pharaoh as God-King

Mesopotamia

Chaotic flooding

City-states

Invasions

Indus River Valley

Trade with Mesopotamia and China

Centralized political structure

Shang China

Oracle bones

Dynastic Cycle

Mandate of Heaven

Isolated from other three


Mesopotamia 4000 bce

Mesopotamia 4000 BCE

Culture

  • Bronze, copper

  • Wheel, irrigation canals

  • Cuneiform, number system

  • Architecture – ziggurats

  • Epic of Gilgamesh – epic tale

Economy

Trade

Unpredictable flooding –need for irrigation

Politics

City-states

Geography – lacked natural barriers, needed defensive walls

Code of Hammurabi – law code

King-like figure

Social

  • Ruled by elite, rulers, priests

  • Farmed by slaves

  • Patriarchal but women could gain positions of power


Egypt 3000 bce

Egypt 3000 BCE

Culture

  • Pyramids, tombs

  • Hieroglyphics

  • Polytheism

  • Bronze tools and weapons

  • Papyrus

  • Calendar, weapons, math , astronomy

Economy

Trade with Kush, Mesopotamia

Predictable flooding, irrigation

Agricultural villages

Politics

Pharaoh – king, sun god

Geography – protected from invasions

Organized government

Developed military

Social

  • Social classes, could rise in status

  • Patriarchal but women had privileges

  • Queen Hatsheput


Indus valley 1500 bce

Indus Valley 1500 BCE

Culture

  • Streets laid out in grid

  • Houses had running water/sewage

  • Writing system

  • Blend of Aryan and Indus Valley people

Economy

Active trade with Sumer

Unpredictable flooding

Politics

Cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro tightly unified, centrally controlled

Overtaken by Aryans

Social

Not as patriarchal

Dravidians and Aryans

Early caste system


Shang huang he valley 1600 bce

Shang – Huang He valley 1600 BCE

Culture

  • Writing

  • Bronze

  • Ironworking

  • Ancestor worship

  • Oracle bones

Economy

Some trade with SE and S Asia

Unpredictable flooding

Small agricultural cities on river

Politics

Dynastic cycle

Central rule to oversee irrigation

Mandate of Heaven

Walled cities

Social

  • Stratified structure – elites, artisans, peasants, slaves

  • Patriarchal

  • Preference for sons

  • Ancestor worship


Olmec civilization in americas 1200 bce

Olmec Civilization in Americas1200 BCE

  • Did not develop along river valleys

  • Influenced later civilizations

    • art, religion, language, ball game

  • Technology adapted to their environment


Chavin civilization in americas 900 bce

ChavinCivilization in Americas900 BCE

  • Unique geography: lived on coast, in Andes Mountains, and in rainforest jungle

  • Influenced later civilizations

    • art, architecture, ruling structure, religion

  • Technology adapted to their environment


Fall of river valley civilizations app 1200 bce

Fall of River Valley Civilizations(app. 1200 BCE)

  • One common feature is invasion by Indo-Europeans.

  • Another theory is interdependence; trade and contact meant they declined together (except China)


Classical civilizations

Classical Civilizations

  • Approx1000 B.C.E. - fifth century C.E.

  • China, India, and the Mediterranean

    • largest population concentrations in the world

    • built on achievements of the river-valley societies

    • not simple continuations of the earlier societies

    • governments had improved military - iron weaponry

    • larger political structures

    • improved on earlier agriculture, manufacturing, and city life

    • built more elaborate philosophical and religious systems

    • expanded mathematical and scientific knowledge


Classical china

Classical China

  • Confucianism

  • Daoism

  • Legalism under Qin Dynasty (Shi Huangdi)

    • Tight control, harsh punishment, strong central government

  • Scholar bureaucrats

  • Patriarchal society

  • Silk Road trade


Classical china zhou qin han

Classical China – Zhou, Qin, Han

Qin 22- 202 BCE

  • Shi Huangdi – dictator

  • Centralized govt

  • Expanded territory

  • Defensive wall

  • Standard coins, laws, weights, measures

  • Legalism – state sponsored

  • Heavy taxes for peasants

Zhou 1027 – 771 BCE

  • Mandate of heaven

  • Expanded territory

  • Bureaucracies

  • Standardized language

  • Philosophy

  • 500 BCE – internal conflict

  • Era of Warring States


Classical china zhou qin han1

Classical China – Zhou, Qin, Han

Han 200 BCE – 220 CE

  • Expanded territory

  • Chinese civil service exam

  • “Han” refers to Chinese

  • Main goal – unifying China

  • Reestablished Confucianism

  • High taxes on peasantry

  • Internal power struggles


Classical india

Classical India

  • Hinduism and caste system

  • Buddhism

  • Indian Ocean and Silk Road trade

  • Lack of centralized political system


Classical india mauryan and gupta

Classical India – Mauryan and Gupta

Mauryan Empire 321 to 185 BCE

  • Strong, central rule, bureaucracy

  • Promoted trade/communication

  • Greatest ruler –Ashoka

    • Converted to Buddhism

    • Pillar edicts

    • Promoted tolerance and harmony

  • Collapsed due to outside attack

Gupta Empire 320 to 550 CE

  • Central government

  • Local lords, autonomy

  • Alliances and military conquests

  • Hinduism

  • Caste system

  • Cultural “golden age”

  • Slow decline due to outsiders


Classical mediterranean

Classical Mediterranean

  • Polytheism

  • Philosophy

  • Move towards democracy


Classical mediterranean greek city states 400 bce

Classical Mediterranean Greek City-States 400 BCE

  • Independent, competing city-states due to geography

  • Polis = city-state

  • Oligarchies – elite rule

  • Transition to democracy

  • Athens and Sparta

  • Persian Wars

  • Golden Age of Pericles

  • Peloponnesian War

  • Alexander the Great spread Hellenistic culture


Classical mediterranean roman republic and empire 250 bce to 475 ce

Classical Mediterranean Roman Republic and Empire 250 BCE to 475 CE

  • Republic: Senate and consuls

  • Aristocracy had power

  • Empire: bureaucrats, law code

  • Culture derived from Greece

  • Military power

  • Engineering and architecture (roads, aqueducts)

  • Dependence on slavery

  • Christianity


Trade in classical era silk roads

Trade in Classical EraSilk Roads

  • Made possible by camels / saddles

  • Important role played by central Asian nomads


Trade in classical era indian ocean

Trade in Classical Era Indian Ocean

  • Lateen (triangular) sail made it possible to sail far from shore

  • Connected East Africa, Middle East, India, SE Asia and China


Fall of classical empires

Fall of Classical Empires

Common Causes

  • Invasion of Germanic tribes (Rome) or Huns (China and India)

  • Deterioration of political institutions

  • Expensive to protect/maintain borders

    Results

  • Not much impact on India: Hinduism and caste system continue

  • China entered period of chaos but Confucianism, Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic cycles continue

  • Rome broke into east and west

    • West disintegrated, never to reform. No great institutions like India or China to sustain it.

    • East became Byzantine Empire.


Belief systems polytheism

Belief Systems - Polytheism

  • Belief in many godsNeolithic Era

    • Animism, nature gods, ancestor worship

    • Priests had power, rituals important


Belief systems judaism

Belief Systems - Judaism

  • First monotheistic faith Sumer by 1850 BCE

    • Hebrews  Jews

    • Abraham’s Covenant

    • Torah, Tanakh (Old Testament)

    • Not a missionary faith


Belief systems hinduism

Belief Systems - Hinduism

  • Aryan migration into India – approx. 1500 BCE

    • Polytheistic – gods & goddesses

    • Vedas & Upanishads – core texts

    • Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

    • Reincarnation, karma, moksha

    • Reinforced caste system


Belief systems buddhism

Belief Systems - Buddhism

  • Ganges River Valley, India 6th Century BCE

    • Different forms have spread worldwide

    • Challenged hierarchy of India – no caste system

    • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama

    • Four Noble Truths, Eightfold path, enlightenment


Belief systems confucianism

Belief Systems – Confucianism

  • China – Warring States period 403 – 221 BCE

    • Not religious – instead an ethical code (secular)

    • No object of worship or rituals

    • Confucius 551 – 479 BCE

    • Analects = conversations

    • Five relationships, patriarchal


Belief systems daoism

Belief Systems - Daoism

  • China Founder Lao Tzu – 604 BCE

  • Warring States period 403 – 221 BCE

    • Philosophy – way of nature, cosmos, “the way”

    • Wisdom and happiness through dao, harmony


Belief systems christianity

Belief Systems - Christianity

  • Middle East Mid 1st Century CE

  • Jesus was a Jew – faith based on Judaism

  • Jesus was seen as the Messiah by followers

  • After executed by Roman officials, apostles spread faith


Diffusion of belief systems

Diffusion of Belief Systems


  • Login