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Томский политехнический университет ЯДЕРНАЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА: НАСТОЯЩЕЕ И БУДУЩЕЕ Игорь Владимирович Шаманин. ДЕЛЕНИЕ ЯДРА.

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ДЕЛЕНИЕ ЯДРА

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:


  • , . : ( -), -.

  • () ( , , ).

  • , , .


( )?

, , .

, , .

- []

1 = 1.602 x 10-13 (1 =1 000 000 ).

:

< 0.5 .

0.5 2000 .

E >2000 .


-

11(.) 0n1(.)

-

11(.) 0n1(.)

-

92U233; 92U235; 94Pu239 -

92U238 -


U235 U238

U235

U238 () ()

, 238U 1 , ( ), 4 .

5 238U, 1 .

. 7 - 200 ( ). .

235U , ( ) 100 c 5 - 6 .


236U

( )

92Kr 141Ba ()

(

)



U235


( )

k ( ). , :

  • ,

  • k0 ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • .


-

U235

0n1

0n1

0n1

U235

U235

0n1

0n1

0n1

U235

U235

0n1

0n1

0n1

U235

( )



( )

238U 235U.

100 10 .

2 .

, 238U,

1 , 238U,

( 4 , )

2,5

, = (4+1)/2.5 = 0.5 - .

, 238U .


( )

2

()

, 235U

- 7 - 200 , 238U ( ).

, 235U , .

235U 0.7 % 238U


( )

1 - - 235U , 235U , 238U. .

2 - , . , , ( 14) , 235U .

235U.


, , .

, . .

:

(2) - PWR, .

(D2O) - CANDU

- , Magnox, HTGR.


( ): 8; 12.

.

; -;

()

-1000 5 U235 .



, 1- ( )

, PWR


-


()


, . -, -, .


  • :

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  • ( )

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  • ( - , - );

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D2O>C>Be>H2O.


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, , , , .

- , .

( k)


, U235

  • 82.0%

  • 2.5%

  • -5.3%

  • -3.4%

  • ,

  • 1.5%

  • 5.3%

  • . , . () .


(1000 0)

(Coated Particles) ( d=6)




()

  • -; -

  • :

  • ( )

  • ( )




PBMR



:

4 + 2 + 2 206

4 + 2 2 + 22 248

CH4 + 0,52CO + 2H2 + 38

+ 2 2 + 2 + 41

13501450 3035 /2, 33,5 /2; . CO H2.

CO H2 .


:

3CO + Fe2O3 2Fe + 3CO2

(, (Fe), (Ni), (Pb), (W), (Cu) .).

, 400-450C (Fe) , :

Fe2O3 + 3H2 = 2Fe + 3H2O


()

1-

2-

3-

4- (Be)


()

-

1- ( H2)

2- ( )

3-


Nerva 3 ()


()

) )

1-

2-

3-

4-

5-

6-

7-

8-

9-

10-

11-


U238 Th232 ()

U238 +U235

Th232 + U235(Pu239)

Th232 + U235(Pu239) Th232 + U233 + U235(Pu239)

Th232 + U233



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