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Cultural Identity. Theories, Approaches, Stages & Types. COM263: Intercultural Communication Arizona State University. Sarah Amira de la Garza, Professor From Martin & Nakayama, chapter 5. Identities & Culture. Identity.

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cultural identity

Cultural Identity

Theories, Approaches, Stages & Types

COM263: Intercultural Communication

Arizona State University

Sarah Amira de la Garza, Professor

From Martin & Nakayama, chapter 5

identity
Identity

identity The concept of who we are. Character- istics of identity may be understood differently depending on the per- spectives that people take—for example, social science, interpretive, or critical perspectives.

two theories of identity
Two Theories of Identity

Items for the Future

  • impression management theory :
  • The ways by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others have of them.
  • identity negotiation theory:
  • A theory that emphasizes the process of communicating one’s own desired identities while reinforcing or resisting others’ identities as the core of intercultural communication.
three perspectives on identity communication
Three Perspectives on Identity &Communication

The First Step to Decluttering

  • Social Science
  • Identity created by self (by relating to groups)
  • Emphasizes individualized, familial, and spiritualself (cross-cultural perspective)
  • Interpretive
  • Identity formed through communication with others
  • Emphasizes avowal and ascribed dimensions
  • Critical
  • Identity shaped through social, historical forces
  • Emphasizes contexts and resisting ascribed identity
social science approach
Social Science Approach
  • Identity created by self (by relating to groups)
  • Emphasizes individualized, familial, and spiritual self (cross-cultural perspective)
interpretive approach
Interpretive Approach
  • Identity formed through communication with others
  • Emphasizes avowal and ascribed dimensions
critical approach
Critical Approach
  • Identity shaped through social, historical forces
  • Emphasizes contexts and resisting ascribed identity
what is your identity
What is Your Identity?
  • In what settings do you rely on a social science approach?
  • When is an interpretive approach useful?
  • What about the critical approach?
slide14

MAJORITY, MINORITY, AND BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

Like the developmental models that come out of learning theory, those who have studied race and culture have identified stages that are reflected in the identities that individuals develop regarding ethnicity.

slide15

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Unexamined Identity
  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity
  • Acceptance of majority group values
  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group
  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity
slide16

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 2. Conformity
  • Internalization of dominant group norms; desire for assimilation into this group
  • Negative attitudes toward themselves and their groups until an experience causes them to question the dominant culture attitudes
slide17

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 3. Resistance & Separatism
  • Growing awareness that not all dominant values are beneficial to minorities
  • Often triggered by negative events
  • Blanket endorsement of one’s group’s values and attitudes
  • Rejection of dominant group values and norms
slide18

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 4. Integration
  • Ideal outcome of identity development—achieved identity
  • Strong sense of their own group identityand an appreciation for other cultural groups
slide19

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Integration
  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity
  • Acceptance of majority group values
  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group
  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity
slide20

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Integration
  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity
  • Acceptance of majority group values
  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group
  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity
slide21

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 2.Acceptance
  • Internalization of a racist(race as the basis for determination of power and order)ideology (passive or active acceptance)
  • The key point is that individuals are not aware that they have been programmed to accept this worldview.
slide22

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 3. Resistance
  • Moving from blaming minority members for their situations and beginning to blame their own dominant group
slide23

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 4. Redefinition
  • Nonacceptance of society’s definition of white
  • Able to see positive aspects of being white
  • Becoming comfortable with being in dominant group
slide24

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 5. Integration
  • Ideal outcome of identity development—achieved identity
  • Strong sense of their own group identity and an appreciation for other cultural groups
slide25

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 1. Possible Cycling Through 3 Stages
  • Awareness of differences and resulting dissonance
  • Awareness that they are different from other children
  • Sense that they don’t fit in anywhere
slide26

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 2. Struggle for Acceptance
  • May feel that they must choose between one race or the other.
slide27

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 3. Self Acceptance & Self Assertion
  • Ability to see the dual and dialectic nature of one’s identity
  • Abandons need to choose and transforms contradictions into tensions
  • Speaks for one’s individual identity as a function and/or product of one’s biracial
slide29

GENDER IDENTITY

The identification with the cultural notions of masculinity and femininity and what it means to be a man or a woman.

slide30

SEXUAL IDENTITY

One’s identification with various categories of sexuality.

slide31

AGE IDENTITY

The identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act, look, and behave according to our age.

slide32

RACIAL IDENTITIES

Identifying with a particular racial group. Although in the past racial groups were classified on the basis of biological characteristics, most scientists now recognize that race is constructed in fluid social and historical contexts.

slide33

ETHNIC IDENTITY

(1) A set of ideas about one’s own ethnic group mem- bership; (2) a sense of belonging to a particular group and knowing some- thing about the shared experience of the group.

slide34

“HYPHENATED AMERICANS”

U.S. Americans who identify not only with being U.S. citizens but also as being members of ethnic groups.

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