Cultural identity
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Cultural Identity. Theories, Approaches, Stages & Types. COM263: Intercultural Communication Arizona State University. Sarah Amira de la Garza, Professor From Martin & Nakayama, chapter 5. Identities & Culture. Identity.

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Cultural Identity

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Cultural identity

Cultural Identity

Theories, Approaches, Stages & Types

COM263: Intercultural Communication

Arizona State University

Sarah Amira de la Garza, Professor

From Martin & Nakayama, chapter 5


Identities culture

Identities & Culture


Identity

Identity

identity The concept of who we are. Character- istics of identity may be understood differently depending on the per- spectives that people take—for example, social science, interpretive, or critical perspectives.


Two theories of identity

Two Theories of Identity

Items for the Future

  • impression management theory :

  • The ways by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others have of them.

  • identity negotiation theory:

  • A theory that emphasizes the process of communicating one’s own desired identities while reinforcing or resisting others’ identities as the core of intercultural communication.


Three perspectives on identity communication

Three Perspectives on Identity &Communication

The First Step to Decluttering

  • Social Science

  • Identity created by self (by relating to groups)

  • Emphasizes individualized, familial, and spiritualself (cross-cultural perspective)

  • Interpretive

  • Identity formed through communication with others

  • Emphasizes avowal and ascribed dimensions

  • Critical

  • Identity shaped through social, historical forces

  • Emphasizes contexts and resisting ascribed identity


Social science approach

Social Science Approach

  • Identity created by self (by relating to groups)

  • Emphasizes individualized, familial, and spiritual self (cross-cultural perspective)


Three dimensions of identity s s

Three Dimensions of Identity (S.S.)

(Roland, 1988)


Interpretive approach

Interpretive Approach

  • Identity formed through communication with others

  • Emphasizes avowal and ascribed dimensions


Interpretive approach to identiy

Interpretive Approach to Identiy

(Hecht, et al)


Critical approach

Critical Approach

  • Identity shaped through social, historical forces

  • Emphasizes contexts and resisting ascribed identity


Critical approaches to identity

Critical Approaches to Identity

Martin & Nakayama


What is your identity

What is Your Identity?

  • In what settings do you rely on a social science approach?

  • When is an interpretive approach useful?

  • What about the critical approach?


Cultural identity

MAJORITY, MINORITY, AND BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

Like the developmental models that come out of learning theory, those who have studied race and culture have identified stages that are reflected in the identities that individuals develop regarding ethnicity.


Cultural identity

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Unexamined Identity

  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity

  • Acceptance of majority group values

  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group

  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity


Cultural identity

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 2. Conformity

  • Internalization of dominant group norms; desire for assimilation into this group

  • Negative attitudes toward themselves and their groups until an experience causes them to question the dominant culture attitudes


Cultural identity

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 3. Resistance & Separatism

  • Growing awareness that not all dominant values are beneficial to minorities

  • Often triggered by negative events

  • Blanket endorsement of one’s group’s values and attitudes

  • Rejection of dominant group values and norms


Cultural identity

MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 4. Integration

  • Ideal outcome of identity development—achieved identity

  • Strong sense of their own group identityand an appreciation for other cultural groups


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Integration

  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity

  • Acceptance of majority group values

  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group

  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 1. Integration

  • Lack of exploration of ethnicity

  • Acceptance of majority group values

  • Positive attitudes toward the majority group

  • Lack of interest in issues of ethnicity


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 2.Acceptance

  • Internalization of a racist(race as the basis for determination of power and order)ideology (passive or active acceptance)

  • The key point is that individuals are not aware that they have been programmed to accept this worldview.


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 3. Resistance

  • Moving from blaming minority members for their situations and beginning to blame their own dominant group


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 4. Redefinition

  • Nonacceptance of society’s definition of white

  • Able to see positive aspects of being white

  • Becoming comfortable with being in dominant group


Cultural identity

MAJORITY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

  • 5. Integration

  • Ideal outcome of identity development—achieved identity

  • Strong sense of their own group identity and an appreciation for other cultural groups


Cultural identity

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 1. Possible Cycling Through 3 Stages

  • Awareness of differences and resulting dissonance

  • Awareness that they are different from other children

  • Sense that they don’t fit in anywhere


Cultural identity

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 2. Struggle for Acceptance

  • May feel that they must choose between one race or the other.


Cultural identity

BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  • 3. Self Acceptance & Self Assertion

  • Ability to see the dual and dialectic nature of one’s identity

  • Abandons need to choose and transforms contradictions into tensions

  • Speaks for one’s individual identity as a function and/or product of one’s biracial


Social cultural identities

Social & Cultural Identities


Cultural identity

GENDER IDENTITY

The identification with the cultural notions of masculinity and femininity and what it means to be a man or a woman.


Cultural identity

SEXUAL IDENTITY

One’s identification with various categories of sexuality.


Cultural identity

AGE IDENTITY

The identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act, look, and behave according to our age.


Cultural identity

RACIAL IDENTITIES

Identifying with a particular racial group. Although in the past racial groups were classified on the basis of biological characteristics, most scientists now recognize that race is constructed in fluid social and historical contexts.


Cultural identity

ETHNIC IDENTITY

(1) A set of ideas about one’s own ethnic group mem- bership; (2) a sense of belonging to a particular group and knowing some- thing about the shared experience of the group.


Cultural identity

“HYPHENATED AMERICANS”

U.S. Americans who identify not only with being U.S. citizens but also as being members of ethnic groups.


Cultural identity

Continued…


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