Southern Gulf Islands Marine Protected Area
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Southern Gulf Islands Marine Protected Area. Federal Level. Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act Proposed Sites in BC Southern Gulf Islands National Park. National Marine Conservation Areas Act. National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCA) Provides for Marine Protected Areas (MPA).

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Southern Gulf Islands Marine Protected Area

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Southern gulf islands marine protected area

Southern Gulf Islands Marine Protected Area


Federal level

Federal Level

  • Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act

  • Proposed Sites in BC

  • Southern Gulf Islands National Park


National marine conservation areas act

National Marine Conservation Areas Act

  • National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCA)

  • Provides for Marine Protected Areas (MPA)


Southern gulf islands marine protected area

NMCA

  • Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS)- Proposal for Bill C-10 Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act, October 2000.

  • Provide Canadians with special places to connect with the rich and diverse environments on our shores, and ensure lasting benefits to our coastal communities and the ecological integrity and healthy proliferation of the valuable marine environments.

  • Each marine conservation area shall be divided into zones, which must include at least one zone that fosters and encourages ecologically sustainable use of marine resources and at least one zone that fully protects special features or sensitive elements of ecosystems, and may include other types of zones (NMCA Act 2002, c. 18 - 4.4).


Southern gulf islands marine protected area

MPA

  • Marine Protected Areas (MPA) would protect all or a portion of the elements within a particular marine environment prohibiting: ocean dumping, dredging, exploration for, or development of, non-renewable resources.

  • Existing marine areas under some form of legislaion comprise only 2% of BC's marine environment.

  • In 1994, the federal and provincial government created a committee to develop a Marine Protected Area Strategy for BC

  • Canada is committed to the completion of a system of marine protected areas on the Pacific coast by 2010.

  • In 1998, a draft MPA strategy for the Pacific Coast was released.

  • In June 2002, the National Marine Conservation Area Act was passed, providing Parks Canada with the legislation to establish MPAs.

  • Gwaii Haanas and Southern Strait of Georgia are poised to be BC's first national marine conservation areas.

  • In 2000, Race Rocks was announced to be Canada's first Marine Protected Area under the Oceans Act but the Endeavour Hot Vents were established as the country's first Oceans Act MPA.


Proposed mpa sites

Proposed MPA Sites

1. Southern Gulf Islands

2. Gwaii Haanas

3. Scott Islands

4. Queen Charlotte Strait

5. Hakai

6. Gabriola

7. Race Rocks

8. Bowie Seamounts

9. Endeavour Hot Vents


Oceans act

MPA Criteria:

(1) High biodiversiy

(2) Fish and habitat

(3) Threatened

(4) Unique habitat

S. Gulf Islands:

(1) Nutrients upflow

(2)Rockfish,lingcod

(3) Killer whales

(4) Sponges, sea anenomes

Oceans Act


Southern gulf islands

Southern Gulf Islands


Southern gulf islands marine protected area

Map


Size of no take zones mpa

Size of No-Take Zones (MPA)

  • Small areas - few kilometers wide, for small animals (Roberts and Haukins 2000)

  • Large areas - tens of kilometers wide, for larger animals and bird colonies (Mosquera et al. 2000)

  • Buffer zones - to protect core not-take zone (NTZ) centers


Mpa connections

MPA Connections

  • Distance - No take zones should be 10 to 50 km apart to maximize biodiversity protection

  • Currents - link no take zones

  • Upstream - need to be protected to conserve downstream areas

  • Arrange - to maximize links between no take zones


Square no take zone ntz line links connection between zones

Square = No Take Zone (NTZ)Line = links (connection between zones)

MPA LINKS


Southern gulf islands marine protected area

As the number of no take zones increase, the conections double and triple between these protected areas


Southern gulf islands marine protected area

The overall protected area increases in size because of the substantial increase of links between sites


Representational areas types of mpas

Representational Areas - types of MPAs

  • Percentage

    • 20-50% of each ecosystem type should be protected for long-term viability

  • Ecosystem Identification

    • Topography / ocean features

  • Exposure

    • High and low tidal exposed areas consist of different species


Biodiversity protection summary

Biodiversity Protection Summary

  • Small - few kilometers for non-moving species

  • Large - 10-20 kilometers for mobile animals

  • 20% - of each habitat type

  • Research - a survey over time to identify best design for maximum biodiversity


People benefit

People Benefit

  • First Nations

    • Culture preservation

    • The establishment of MPAs in British Columbia will be without prejudice to First Nations treaty processes and the Constitutional rights of First Nation governments.

  • Public

    • Participation and Education

  • Economic benefits

    • Fisheries

    • Ecotourism


Stake holders

Stake-holders

  • Study on local involvement in Mediterranean (Badalamenti, 2000)

    • Success is proportional to the involvement of the local community


Kelp bed ecology

Kelp bed ecology


Fisheries

Fisheries

  • Adult Recruitment

  • Species Recovery

  • Life Stage Protection

  • Genetic Reservoirs

  • Insurance Against Uncertainty


Adjacent fishing areas

AdjacentFishingAreas

  • Florida (Taylor et al. 2000)

    • Tagged fish left MPA to enter fishing grounds

    • Several world records set near MPA

  • Caribbean (Taylor et al. 2000)

    • Greater abundance, size, and biomass near MPA

  • California (Thompson 1997)

    • Median catch close to MPA significantly greater than median catch far from MPA

  • Gulf of Mexico (Jones 1998)

    • No increase in yield, but compliance by fishers only 65%


Mpas in bc

MPAs in BC

  • Whytecliff Park:

    • Above average lingcod spawning in MPA

    • Large coppers, quillbacks, and lingcod in MPA

  • Porteau Cove:

    • Greater lingcod spawning than in controls


  • Southern gulf island fisheries

    Southern Gulf Island Fisheries

    • Migration route for salmon

    • Bottom fishery for halibut

    • Shellfish

    • Crabs and prawns

    • Rockfish


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • NMCA in Southern Gulf Islands will benefit:

      • Biodiversity

      • Culture

      • Ecotourism

      • Fisheries


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