Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria
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Lab 7: Animals I: Porifera, Radiata, and Introduction to Bilateria. Part A:Sponges (Phylum Porifera). video spongin (collagen). No Symmetry (asmmetrical); no true tissue. Task A-1 :Sponges (Phylum Porifera). Slide: Scypha – look for holdfast, osculum Slide: sponge spiculues

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Lab 7: Animals I: Porifera, Radiata, and Introduction to Bilateria

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Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Lab 7: Animals I: Porifera, Radiata, and Introduction to Bilateria


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part A:Sponges (Phylum Porifera)

  • video

  • spongin (collagen)

No Symmetry (asmmetrical); no true tissue


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task A-1:Sponges (Phylum Porifera)

  • Slide: Scypha – look for holdfast, osculum

  • Slide: sponge spiculues

  • body types: simple, intermediate, complex – draw arrows on Fig. 7-3; look at specimens


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part B:Phylum Cnidaria

  • have true tissues

  • radial symmetry

  • have stinging cells (cnidocytes) on tentacles and elsewhere

  • tentacles surround mouth

  • gastrovascular cavity with extracellular digestion; one opening serves as both mouth and anus

  • after larval stage (planula), polyp and/or medusa stage(s)


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Fig. 44.8


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part B:Phylum Cnidaria

  • three classes

    • Hydrozoa – hydroids

    • Scyphozoa – jellyfish

    • Anthozoa – sea anemones and corals


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task B-1:Phylum Cnidaria

  • Hydrozoa – hydroids

    • usually have both polyp and medusa stages

    • example: Hydra (solitary freshwater organism)

      • slides: look for tentacles, bud, cnidocytes, gastrovascular cavity, mouth, epidermis and endodermis (gastrodermis) with mesoglea between

      • living specimen – note its movement, look for external structures


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task B-1:Phylum Cnidaria

  • Hydrozoa – hydroids (continued)

    • example: Obelia (colonial marine organism)

      • slides: note structures from Fig. 7-6 (feeding polyps, reproductive polyps, medusa buds, medusae, tentacles, gonads, mouth, gastrovascular cavity, etc.)

    • example: Portuguese man-of-war (colonial)

      • note both polyps and medusae in a colony that has superficial resemblance to a large medusa


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task B-1:Phylum Cnidaria

  • Scyphozoa – jellyfish

    • dominant medusae; some have no polyp form

    • example: preserved specimen – treat it gently!

      • note tentacles, oral arms, mouth, gastrovascular cavity, gonads, thick jelly-like mesoglea


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task B-1:Phylum Cnidaria

  • Anthozoa – sea anemones and corals

    • polyp stage only

    • sea anemones – very muscular

      • some sessile, but not all (…see video)

      • example: preserved specimen (treat gently!)

        • note mouth, tentacles, pedal disc


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task B-1:Phylum Cnidaria

  • Anthozoa – sea anemones and corals (continued)

    • corals

      • most secrete calcium carbonate exoskeletons

      • look at dry coral specimens; note distinct cups indicating origins from separate polyps


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Bilateria

  • Bilateria – animals with bilateral symmetry

    • associated with cephalization (forming a true head)

    • learn dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Fig. 44.3b


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Bilateria

  • different forms based on fluid-filled body cavity

    • acoelomate – no body cavity

    • pseudocoelomate – body cavity bound by mesoderm on one side, endoderm on the other

    • coelomate (or eucoelomate) – “true” body cavity, surrounded by mesoderm on both sides


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Fig. 44.4


Coelomates

Coelomates

  • coelom surrounded by mesodermal tissue (also called eucoelom)

  • allows for more complex organs, especially digestive system


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Bilateria

  • body cavities allow many things, such as hydrostatic skeleton, internal organs, circulatory system, etc.

  • coelom allows for more specialization than pseudocoelom does


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Bilateria

  • Two major clades within Bilateria: Protostomia (covered in this lab and lab 8) and Deuterostomia (covered in lab 9)

  • Within Protostomia, two major clades


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Bilateria

  • non-molting protostomes (labs 7 and 8)

  • vs.

  • molting protostomes (lab 8)

  • Two selected non-molting phyla covered in this lab:

    • Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms

    • Phylum Annelida – segmented worms


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C:Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms

  • acoelomate

  • dorsoventral flattening in most

  • incomplete digestive tract, when present (combo mouth/anus, just like Cnidarians)

  • most are parasitic; some are hunters

  • hermaphroditic

  • ….video


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task C-1: Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms

  • 3 classes

    • Turbellaria

    • Cestoda – tapeworms

    • Trematoda – flukes

  • examine specimens and slides, look for structures noted in Figs. 7-10, 11, and 12 such as ocellus, pharynx, intestine, scolex, proglottids


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Part C: Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

  • segmented – linear repetition of body parts; specialization in some (such as head); often separated by septa

  • use coelom for hydrostatic skeleton

  • closed circulatory system

  • excretory tubules (metanephridia)

  • most have chitinous bristles (setae) on most segments – for sensing, and locomotion


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task 2: Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

  • 3 classes

    • Polychaeta (polychaetes)

    • Oligochaeta (earthworms)

    • Hirudinea (leeches)


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task C-2: Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

  • annelid box and slide: examine the preserved specimens and slide, note the following:

    • Polychaeta – clamworm:

      • distinct head with tentacles, eyes, jaws

      • fleshy parapodia on segments – used for locomotion

      • compare to plume worm (not in box – demo only)


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task C-2: Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

  • annelid box and slide:

    • Oligochaeta – earthworm:

      • rub to feel chitinous setae, used for holding to soil

      • clitellum – band used in mating; is nearer to the anterior end of the worm

      • reproductive pores anterior to clitellum (earthworms are hermaphroditic)

      • cross-section slide: compare to Fig. 7-14, note structures bolded in you manual such as coelom


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

Task C-2: Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

  • annelid box:

    • Hirudinea – leech:

      • dorsoventral flattening

      • lack of setae and parapodia

      • less distinct segmentation

      • suckers for attaching to host for feeding (leeches are blood-sucking parasites)


Lab 7 animals i porifera radiata and introduction to bilateria

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EXIT QUIZ !!!


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