Loading in 5 sec....

Bits, Bytes and NibblesPowerPoint Presentation

Bits, Bytes and Nibbles

- By
**taryn** - Follow User

- 94 Views
- Uploaded on

Download Presentation
## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Bits, Bytes and Nibbles' - taryn

**An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation**

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

### Bits, Bytes and Nibbles

Revision for A level year 2

- TTL stands for Transistor Transistor Logic
- TTL operates on a power supply of 5 volts
- The power supply tolerance for TTL logic is less than 10% ideally.
- TTL is used in digital electronics

- Digital systems are different from analogue systems in the following ways
- Analog = Continuously variable voltage
- Digital = Discrete steps of voltage
- Think about climbing a hill
- A hill with no steps is analogous to analog
- A hill with steps cut out is analogous to digital

- Further differences between following waysanalog and digital
- Analog = amplification
- Digital = switching
- Analog = voltages
- Digital = numbers

- So digital systems sample following waysanalog voltages
- The value of each sample is stored as a number
- The sampling is carried out by an analog to digital converter (ADC)
- The digital number can be stored in computer memory either RAM or ROM

- Each digital number is stored in binary code following ways
- Binary code is a system of representing numbers using 1’s and 0’s
- In TTL systems a 1 = 2-5 volts = High = True
- In TTL systems a 0 = 0-0.8 volts = Low = False

- Each 1 or 0 which makes up a digital number is known as a bit
- There are 8 bits in each byte
- There are 4 bits in each nibble
- The more bits that are used to take a sample of an analog voltage the greater the accuracy of the sample

- This diagram shows how a 4 bit system could reproduce (a very rough version) of a sine wave

- Note the 4 bit system has 16 possible values very rough version) of a sine wave
- You can find the maximum amount of values any digital system can represent with the equation:
- Maximum possible values = 2nbits

- So if the maximum amount of values available is equal to 2 to the power of the number of bits.
- Determine the maximum number of values that can be represented by:
- An 8 bit system
- A 16 bit system

Binary representation to the power of the number of bits.

- So to summarize to the power of the number of bits.
- Any decimal number can be represented by a binary code
- The more bits a system has the more numbers that can be represented
- In electronic systems the bits are stored as voltages

- Binary code can be read in series, where each bit follows one by one. This is known as serial transmission

- Parallel transmission one by one. This is known as serial transmission
- This is where each bit of the code is represented and transmitted at the same time, not bit by bit as in serial
- Potentially it could be far quicker than serial transmission but does suffer from one major drawback. What do you think it could be?

- Repeated division by 2 one by one. This is known as serial transmission
- Convert 4610 to binary
- Procedure
- 46/2 = 23 remainder 0 therefore LSB = 0
- 23/2 = 11 remainder 1 … second LSB = 1
- 11/2 = 5 remainder 1 …………………….= 1
- 5/2 = 2 remainder 1 …………………….= 1
- 2/2 = 1 remainder 0…………………….= 0
- 1/2 = 0 remainder 1…………… MSB = 1
Therefore 4610 = 1011102

- Convert the following decimal values to binary using repeated division by 2
- 255
- 124
- 39

- Hexadecimal is a very convenient way of representing binary numbers in base 16

Because it is base 16, letters are used to represent the numbers in the upper register

Hexadecimal- Convert 0001 1111 to hexadecimal numbers in base 16
- From the table 0001 = 1, 1111 = F
- Therefore 0001 1111 = 1F in hexadecimal
- Convert 0001 0101 1100 1110 to hex

- Convert 7EF8 to binary numbers in base 16
- From the table
- 7 = 0111
- E = 1110
- F = 1111
- 8 = 1000
- Therefore 7EF8 = 0111 1110 1111 1000
- Convert 8FAC to binary

- The most useful properties of the hexadecimal system are the ability to store more digital information in fewer digits and also as a shorthand way of representing very large binary numbers.
- Once you have done a few conversions you will see how easy it is
- Being comfortable with hexadecimal representation will help greatly when you begin to work with programming microcontrollers

Download Presentation

Connecting to Server..