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Bits, Bytes and Nibbles. Revision for A level year 2. TTL stands for Transistor Transistor Logic TTL operates on a power supply of 5 volts The power supply tolerance for TTL logic is less than 10% ideally. TTL is used in digital electronics. TTL Fundamentals.

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Bits bytes and nibbles

Bits, Bytes and Nibbles

Revision for A level year 2


Ttl fundamentals

  • TTL stands for Transistor Transistor Logic

  • TTL operates on a power supply of 5 volts

  • The power supply tolerance for TTL logic is less than 10% ideally.

  • TTL is used in digital electronics

TTL Fundamentals


Ttl fundamentals1

TTL Fundamentals


Ttl fundamentals2

  • Further differences between following waysanalog and digital

  • Analog = amplification

  • Digital = switching

  • Analog = voltages

  • Digital = numbers

TTL Fundamentals


Digital fundamentals

  • So digital systems sample following waysanalog voltages

  • The value of each sample is stored as a number

  • The sampling is carried out by an analog to digital converter (ADC)

  • The digital number can be stored in computer memory either RAM or ROM

Digital Fundamentals


Digital fundamentals1

  • Each digital number is stored in binary code following ways

  • Binary code is a system of representing numbers using 1’s and 0’s

  • In TTL systems a 1 = 2-5 volts = High = True

  • In TTL systems a 0 = 0-0.8 volts = Low = False

Digital Fundamentals


Digital fundamentals2

Digital Fundamentals


A 4 bit system

A 4 bit system


4 bit systems

4 bit systems


Bits n pieces

Bits n pieces


Binary representation
Binary representation to the power of the number of bits.


Binary representation1

  • So to summarize to the power of the number of bits.

  • Any decimal number can be represented by a binary code

  • The more bits a system has the more numbers that can be represented

  • In electronic systems the bits are stored as voltages

Binary Representation


Binary code

Binary code


Binary code1

  • Parallel transmission one by one. This is known as serial transmission

  • This is where each bit of the code is represented and transmitted at the same time, not bit by bit as in serial

  • Potentially it could be far quicker than serial transmission but does suffer from one major drawback. What do you think it could be?

Binary code


Decimal to binary conversion

  • Repeated division by 2 one by one. This is known as serial transmission

  • Convert 4610 to binary

  • Procedure

  • 46/2 = 23 remainder 0 therefore LSB = 0

  • 23/2 = 11 remainder 1 … second LSB = 1

  • 11/2 = 5 remainder 1 …………………….= 1

  • 5/2 = 2 remainder 1 …………………….= 1

  • 2/2 = 1 remainder 0…………………….= 0

  • 1/2 = 0 remainder 1…………… MSB = 1

    Therefore 4610 = 1011102

Decimal to binary conversion


Repeated division by 2

Repeated division by 2


Hexadecimal

Because it is base 16, letters are used to represent the numbers in the upper register

Hexadecimal


Binary to hex conversion

  • Convert 0001 1111 to hexadecimal numbers in base 16

  • From the table 0001 = 1, 1111 = F

  • Therefore 0001 1111 = 1F in hexadecimal

  • Convert 0001 0101 1100 1110 to hex

Binary to Hex conversion


Hex to binary conversion

  • Convert 7EF8 to binary numbers in base 16

  • From the table

  • 7 = 0111

  • E = 1110

  • F = 1111

  • 8 = 1000

  • Therefore 7EF8 = 0111 1110 1111 1000

  • Convert 8FAC to binary

Hex to binary conversion


Hex and binary

  • The most useful properties of the hexadecimal system are the ability to store more digital information in fewer digits and also as a shorthand way of representing very large binary numbers.

  • Once you have done a few conversions you will see how easy it is

  • Being comfortable with hexadecimal representation will help greatly when you begin to work with programming microcontrollers

Hex and binary


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