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Where we have been. Review of Tier 1. As we work to develop more intensive systems for our struggling students we assume You are working on your core You are working on your screening assessment system You are looking at schoolwide data. Without a strong core

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Review of tier 1
Review of Tier 1

  • As we work to develop more intensive systems for our struggling students we assume

    • You are working on your core

    • You are working on your screening assessment system

    • You are looking at schoolwide data


Without a

strong core

the systems you will begin to create over the next few days

will be

overwhelmed.




Why are we here
Why are we here?

  • Most of the interventions are delivered in small group setting – we should discuss that delivery model!

  • Learn about instruction of students in the small group setting.

  • Learn about what research tells us about the key components of reading

  • Explicit about my instruction

  • Eliminates confusion about why we are here

  • Gives you a road map for where we are going


Expectations
Expectations

  • Demonstrate good audience skills

    • Silence cell phones

    • Hold side conversations out of ear shot of others

    • Engage in active listening

  • Participate in partner discussions

  • Take notes to track your thinking

  • If you need a break, take one

  • Complete the evaluation/formative assessment at the back of the packet

  • Explicit about my instruction

  • Clear expectations reduce confusion

  • I assume you know all these things


But i m not delivering small group instruction
“But I’m not delivering small group instruction. . . .”

  • As leaders you will need to train others on small group instruction.

  • As coaches you will need to show others how to deliver small group instruction.

  • As observers you will need to determine if small group instruction is delivered well

  • As teachers you will need to deliver and talk with your peers about small group instruction.


“Simply placing students in small or more homogenous group is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective materials and teaching must be varied and made appropriately challenging to accommodate the needs of students at their different levels of ability.”

~John Hattie, Visible Learning, 2009, p. 95


“Simply placing students in small or more homogenous group is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective materials and teaching must be varied and made appropriately challenging to accommodate the needs of students at their different levels of ability.”

~John Hattie, Visible Learning, 2009, p. 95


Definition of small group
Definition of Small Group is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • size of each group (e.g., 3-5 for struggling readers, 5-7 for other students, etc.)

  • number of days per week each group attends the Teacher-Led Center

  • number of minutes per day

  • content and level of the lesson (i.e. area(s) of reading skill and level of instruction)

  • type of lesson structure for each group (i.e., Skills-Focused Lesson or Guided Reading)


Types of small group instruction
Types of Small Group Instruction is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

Guided Reading

Skill Focused Lessons

“explicit re-teaching of both knowledge elements and skills, as well as extended opportunities to practice the application of these skills in a variety of contexts ranging from individual words, to phrases, to sentences, to connected text.” (Kosanovich, p.4)

  • Guided Reading is a context in which a teacher supports each reader’s development of effective strategies for processing novel texts at increasingly challenging levels of difficulty” (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, p. 3).


Guided Reading is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

Skill Focused Lessons

“explicit re-teaching of both knowledge elements and skills, as well as extended opportunities to practice the application of these skills in a variety of contexts ranging from individual words, to phrases, to sentences, to connected text.” (Kosanovich, p.4)

  • Guided Reading is a context in which a teacher supports each reader’s development of effective strategies for processing novel texts at increasingly challenging levels of difficulty” (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, p. 3).


Systematic instruction
Systematic Instruction is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Clear expectations about what is to be learned

  • Clarity of presentation

  • Multiple opportunities for student responses

  • Active monitoring of responses

  • Frequent evaluation and feedback

Christenson, 1989


Clear expectations about what is to be learned
Clear expectations about what is to be learned is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective


Clear expectations about what is to be learned1
Clear expectations about what is to be learned is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Gain student’s attention

  • State the goal of the lesson

    • “Why do we have to learn this?”

    • Convey the skill’s relevance in the larger context


Behavior expectations
Behavior Expectations is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Promote safety and a positive learning environment

  • Keep rules short and simple

  • State in the positive

  • Give example and non-examples

  • Review rules regularly

  • Looks like/sounds like chart


Be respectful
Be Respectful is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

What it looks like

What it sounds like

Use kind words

Use a quiet voice

  • Keep your eyes are on the teacher, partner or the text

  • Follow directions

  • Honor other people’s things and feelings

  • Wait for your turn

example


  • Tally marks is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

    • Each student has a post it

    • One side for behavior

    • Other side for individual responses

  • Great for communication with classroom teacher

  • Can tie to PBIS plan

Steven


Behavior expectations1
Behavior Expectations is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

What we expect

=

What we get


Do you have clear routines for
Do you have clear routines for… is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Cues for attention

  • Cues for stop!

  • How to get help?

  • How to use computers?

  • What to do in fire drill?

  • When you have not yet arrived at the learning space?

  • When the instructor is absent?

  • How to enter the learning space?

  • How to exit the learning space?

  • Use the bathroom?

  • Get a drink?

  • Having no pencil?

  • Sharpen a pencil?

  • Use a binder or folder

  • What to bring?


Talk to a neighbor
Talk to a neighbor is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Which type of small group instruction is happening in your schools, guided reading and/or skill focus lessons?

  • How are the behavioral expectations set?


Clarity of presentation
Clarity of presentation is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective


Clarity of presentation1
Clarity of presentation is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Modeling or demonstrating the skill (I do it)

  • Providing prompted or guided practice (we do it)

  • Providing structured partnership (y’all do it)

  • Providing unprompted practice (you do it)


I do it
I do it is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Demonstrating and describing what is being done

  • Think alouds

  • Be clear, consistent, and concise

  • Provide several models

  • Involve students in the model


We do it
We do it is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Guided practice is provided through the use of prompts

    • Directions, clues, cues or reminders

    • Physical, verbal, visual

  • Prompts are gradually withdrawn

    • Telling Asking Reminding


Y all do it
Y’all do it is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Partners practice the skill together

  • Partners are taught to prompt

    • “Would you like help or time?”


You do it
You Do It is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective

  • Independent work consists of the same task used during instruction

  • Initial attempt at independent practice

  • Provides a chance for constructive feedback

  • Formative assessment

    • Assessment that changes our instruction


Multiple opportunities for student responses
Multiple opportunities for student responses is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective


Multiple opportunities for students to practice
Multiple is not enough. For grouping to be maximally effective opportunities for students to practice

  • Provides more than one opportunity to practice each new skill

  • Provides opportunities for practice after each step in instruction

  • Elicits group responses when feasible

  • Provides extra practice based on accuracy of student responses

Carrie Thomas Beck, Ph. D.

Oregon Reading First Center



Drill and practice vs drill and kill
Drill and Practice vs. practicing what has been taught.Drill and Kill

Drill

and

Skill!

Drill

and

Thrill!

Repetition with joy


Active monitoring of responses
Active monitoring of responses practicing what has been taught.


Active monitoring of responses1
Active monitoring of responses practicing what has been taught.

  • Listening for responses

  • Watch and listen to a child each turn

  • Listen-in to partner responses

  • Read written responses

  • Record keeping


Record keeping
Record keeping practicing what has been taught.


Record keeping1
Record keeping practicing what has been taught.


Frequent evaluation and feedback
Frequent evaluation and feedback practicing what has been taught.


Feedback
Feedback practicing what has been taught.

  • Teachers provide to students

  • Students provide to teachers

    • What students know

    • What they understand

    • Where they make errors

    • When they have misconceptions

    • When they are not engaged

    • Hattie, 2009

      Not in handouts


Frequent evaluation and feedback1
Frequent evaluation and feedback practicing what has been taught.

  • Feedback will help close the gap between current response and desired response.

  • Remain positive

  • Focus on the correct response not the incorrect response


Corrective feedback
Corrective Feedback practicing what has been taught.

  • Provides affirmations for correct responses

  • Promptly corrects errors with provision of correct model

  • Limits corrective feedback language to the task at hand

  • Ensures mastery of all students before moving on

Carrie Thomas Beck, Ph. D.

Oregon Reading First Center


Corrective feedback1
Corrective Feedback practicing what has been taught.

  • Affirmations

    √ Go beyond a simple “yes,” “good job” or “that’s right.”

    √ Be specific!

    “Yes, /aaaaaa/.”

    “Yes, that word is goat.”

    “Right, the fox was trying to come up with a plan to trick the rabbit.”

Carrie Thomas Beck, Ph. D.

Oregon Reading First Center


Corrective feedback2
Corrective Feedback practicing what has been taught.

Part Firming Paradigm:

  • Tell the answer.

  • Repeat the task.

  • Repeat the part.

  • Go on to the next part.

  • Go back to the beginning of the exercise if you had to firm more than one part.

Carrie Thomas Beck, Ph. D.

Oregon Reading First Center


Corrective feedback3
Corrective Feedback practicing what has been taught.

Practice does not make perfect.

Perfect practice makes perfect.


Talk to a neighbor1
Talk to a neighbor practicing what has been taught.

  • How would you describe the small group instruction currently occurring in your schools?

  • How can you take this structure back to your schools?


Overview of the big 5

Overview of the “Big 5” practicing what has been taught.

Tara Black & Dean Richards

OrRTI Cadre 7 Training


Phonemic awareness
Phonemic Awareness practicing what has been taught.

  • Word comparison

  • Rhyming

    Which words rhyme? pail, tail or cow, pig?

  • Sentence segmentation

    The cat is fat. How many words do you hear?

  • Syllable segmentation and blending

    Clap the syllables in these words:

    bat, batter, airplane, table, porcupine


Phonemic awareness1
Phonemic Awareness practicing what has been taught.

  • Onsets and rimes

    The first part of cat is /c/; last part of win is /in/)

  • Phoneme segmentation

    How many sounds are in cat?

  • Phoneme addition, deletion and manipulation

    Listen to the word, bat; drop the /b/ add replace with /c/ what’s the word?


Phonics
Phonics practicing what has been taught.

  • Letter sounds

  • VC and CVC

  • Consonant Digraphs

  • CVCC and CCVC

  • Silent E


Phonics1
Phonics practicing what has been taught.

  • R-control vowels

  • Advanced consonants (i.e.,-tch, kn, soft c & g)

  • Vowel Teams

  • Multi-syllable words

  • Prefixes and suffixes


Fluency
Fluency practicing what has been taught.

Necessary Skills: Phonics and other strategies for decoding words

  • Accuracy

  • Prosody

    • Expression

    • Emphasis

    • Phrasing

    • Volume

    • Smoothness

  • Rate

    • CWPM

The old man the vegetable garden.


Vocabulary
Vocabulary practicing what has been taught.

  • Contextual Analysis

  • Morphemic Analysis

  • Receptive Language

    • Reading Comprehension

    • Listening Comprehension

  • Expressive Language

    • Writing

    • Speaking

Center for Teaching and Learning, University of Oregon


Comprehension
Comprehension practicing what has been taught.

  • Text Structure

  • Make Inferences and Analyze

  • Evaluate

  • Story Structure

  • Generate Questions

  • Summarize

  • Monitor Comprehension

Keep in mind:

Reading OAKS strand information is more related to the difficulty of the passage than the ability for the student to use the skill


Talk to a neighbor2
Talk to a neighbor practicing what has been taught.

  • What are the “Big 5” components of a core reading program?


  • Video 1 practicing what has been taught.

    • First grade

    • Phonemic Awareness


  • Video 2 practicing what has been taught.

    • 4th grade

    • Phonemic Awareness


  • Video 3 practicing what has been taught.

    • 1st grade

    • Phonics


phonics practicing what has been taught.


Talk to a neighbor3
Talk to a neighbor practicing what has been taught.

  • What similarities did you notice in the Phonemic Awareness videos and the Phonics video?


  • Video 4 practicing what has been taught.

    • 5th grade

    • Paragraph Fluency


  • Video 5 practicing what has been taught.

    • 3rd grade

    • Vocabulary


  • Video 6 practicing what has been taught.

    • 2nd grade

    • Fluency and Comprehension


Talk to a neighbor4
Talk to a neighbor practicing what has been taught.

  • How did the components of small instruction look in each of the big 5 areas of Reading?


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