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FREIGHT TRANSPORT RESEARCH IN AFRICA & ASIA. John Hine . FREIGHT TRANSPORT Research TOPICS. Modelling Vehicle Operating Costs for Road Appraisal Can t ime savings be used productively ? Speed and fuel consumption Vehicle maintenance costs

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freight transport research topics
FREIGHT TRANSPORT Research TOPICS
  • Modelling Vehicle Operating Costs for Road Appraisal
    • Can time savings be used productively ?
    • Speed and fuel consumption
    • Vehicle maintenance costs
  • Examining the efficiency and constraints of national transport systems.
    • Reducing Empty Running
    • Comparative Transport Costs and Tariffs between Africa and Asia
  • Improving the efficiency of rural transport
slide4

Log LOADED Trips per Day = 0.97 -0.932 LOG Working Time per TRIP (The Elasticity Suggests Time savings would be Fully USED) – Pakistan travelling observer survey

modelling vehicle operating costs in relation to road characteristics
Modelling vehicle operating COSTS IN Relation to Road Characteristics
  • Road Appraisal Models such as HDM4 and RED calculate vehicle operating costs as a function of road alignment, road width, traffic volume and road roughness. The models are used to estimate the benefits of upgrading earth and gravel roads to a paved bitumen standard.
  • The models predict vehicle speeds, fuel consumption and maintenance costs. Generally the smoother, wider and better aligned the road surface so the lower the operating costs. Speed is calculated by complex formula whereby the key limiting factor (gradient, curvature, roughness, traffic volume etc) determines the speed. Fuel is dependent on speed and gradient. Vehicle maintenance is dependent on road roughness.
hdm4 the road planning model the calculation of fuel consumption
FUEL CONSUMPTION

Uses the ARFCOM model - an instantaneous model of engine power requirements which includes

Tractive power to overcome resistance to motion

Accessory power

Internal engine resistance

ACCELERATION NOISE

Speeds in congested traffic conditions are not constant and speed variations need to be included in the fuel consumption model

HDM4 (The Road Planning Model)The Calculation of Fuel Consumption
light vehicle fuel consumption in indonesia observed to predicted arfcom results
Light Vehicle Fuel Consumption in Indonesia: Observed to Predicted ARFCOM Results

Observed

Predicted

medium truck fuel consumption flat straight road in indonesia
Medium Truck Fuel Consumption(Flat Straight Road in Indonesia)

Estimated fuel consumption with congestion by ARFCOM/HDM4

HDMIII no congestion

ARFCOM /HDM-4 no congestion

hdm 4
MAINTENANCE PARTS CONSUMPTION

The most important component of road user costs

The most \'variable\' and most difficult to model

Function of new vehicle price, vehicle age and road roughness

HDM-4 relationships less sensitive to roughness

Essential to calibrate

MAINTENANCE LABOUR

Dependent on parts consumption

HDM-4
observed and predicted vehicle maintenance costs articulated truck
Observed and Predicted Vehicle Maintenance Costs- Articulated Truck

Predicted

Maintenance Costs

Observed

Vehicle Age

a study of empty running in china
A study of Empty Running in china
  • In 1990s China had a high degree of empty running. This appeared to relate to a high level of own account operations in addition to a poorly developed system of commercial freight forwarding agents.
  • A study was carried out in Zhengzhou (at the cross roads of main east west and north south highways) in which 1024 truck drivers were interviewed.
  • Empty running data was compared with Pakistan and UK data and a ‘load matching’ analysis was carried out by computer. Potential savings were estimated at between 13 % and 19% of total distance travelled in the survey.
  • Overall with a better developed freight forwarding industry about 4% of total freight vehicle distance may be saved in China.
logistics performance index lpi
LOGISTICS PERFORMANCE INDEX : LPI

The LPI is a set of indicators that measure perceptions of the logistics environment of 155 countries on several logistics dimensions. The survey uses an anonymous, web-based questionnaire and assess several logistics dimensions:

  • International transportation costs;
  • Domestic transportation costs;
  • Timeliness of shipments;
  • Traceability of shipments;
  • Transport and IT infrastructure;
  • Customs and other border procedures; and
  • Logistics competence.
transport costs in africa and asia
Transport Costs in Africa and Asia
  • Over the past 25 years there have been at least five major comparative studies of transport costs in Africa and Asia
  • The studies confirm that transport tariffs in Africa, for comparable journeys are many times higher than in Africa than in Asia
  • However there are differences in the reasons behind the higher costs: earlier studies emphasised cost factors while the latest study by the World Bank (2009) puts more emphasis on very high profits.
transport costs in africa asia main sources
TRANSPORT COSTS IN AFRICA & ASIA: Main Sources

TRL Study on Pakistan, INRETS & LET, Francophone Africa. See: A comparison of the costs and productivity of road freight transport in Africa and Pakistan. Transport Reviews, Vol 13, No.2, Rizet & Hine, 1993

A Comparison of Freight Transport Operations in Tanzania and Indonesia,1997. TRL Report 267. J Hine, J. Ebden and P Swan)

The transition from non-motorised to motorised modes of transport. 7th World Conference on Transport Research, Sydney, 1995( S. Ellis & J. Hine).

: Transport Prices and Costs in Africa: A review of the International Corridors. By S. Teravaninthorn and G. Raballand. World bank 2009

slide19

Tariff Comparison

Tariff(1988 US cents/tonne/km)

50

Cameroon

40

Ivory Coast

30

20

Mali

10

Pakistan

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

10

20

50

Thousand tonne km per trip

slide20

Africa

Pakistan

Taxes:

with

without

with

without

New vehicle

39,710

33,093

154,500

123,300

758

Tyre

425

224

169

0.27

0.50

0.24

Diesel (US$/L)

0.74

Annual costs :

Crew

4,888

4,888

4,103

4,103

Veh. Insurance

8

1,751

8

1,432

Goods insurance

839

1,028

-

-

Licenses and taxes

-

1,361

-

145

INPUT COSTS (1988 US$)

slide21

FREIGHT TRANSPORT COSTS

Africa

Pakistan

Design Payload

tons

25

13

Mean Payload

tons

32

26

Empty running

%

34

12

Annual travel

km

50,000

123,000

US cents per km

Depreciation, Interest

35.5

4.0

Fuel

39.4

13.2

Maintenance

32.0

5.2

Tyres

16.9

1.8

Crew

9.8

3.3

Insurance

5.6

0.006

Taxes, Overheads

17.5

1.0

Police, Agents Fees

6.1

2.4

Total costs per km

162.6

31.0

Total costs per ton km

7.6

1.4

different modes of transport
Different modes of transport
  • Many factories in Thailand produce the Etan farm vehicle out second hand parts. They can give low transport costs for small loads travelling short and medium distances.
  • The power tiller (or single axle tractor) is now an important means of transport, particularly in rural Asia.
  • Both of these vehicles may not be licensed to operate in Africa.
high transport costs in africa
High Transport Costs In Africa

Earlier Studies Stressed:

High initial input prices for vehicles, fuel, parts

Exclusive dealerships, low demand

Poor driver knowledge of vehicle maintenance

Unnecessary fast driving speeds

Poor road surfaces

Little competition, particularly on rural routes

Low utilisation caused by low density of demand and operation of operator cartels

high transport costs in africa 2
High Transport Costs In Africa - 2

Later studies emphasised:

  • Most vehicles are imported second hand
  • Low utilisation of vehicles
  • High barrier costs on international routes
  • Super profits being made by operators
  • The presence of cartels preventing competition
pakistan a model for success
Pakistan – a Model for Success ?
  • One of the most efficient freight transport systems in the world
  • Large network of freight forwarding agents
    • individually owned
    • 25% general merchandise
    • 75% specialist consignments e.g. quarried materials, iron, steel
    • ⅓ of consignments were “smalls” (< one ton)

Credit: TRL Limited

slide33

FACTORS PROMOTING LOW COST TRANSPORT IN PAKISTAN - OPERATIONAL

  • On-the-job training for drivers
  • Drivers given a lot of responsibility
  • Continuous vehicle maintenance practiced
  • Two drivers per vehicle achieve high utilization
  • Oil changed frequently
  • Slow driving speeds
slide34

FACTORS PROMOTING LOW COST TRANSPORT IN PAKISTAN - ORGANISATIONAL

  • Very competitive free market
  • Little government regulation
  • Efficient network of forwarding agents
  • Low initial vehicle prices
  • Many cheap parts made locally
  • Many good local workshops
  • High Density of Demand
ghana gprtu 1
Ghana . GPRTU 1.

About 70% of transport operators belong to the GPRTU (Ghana Private Road Transport Union of the TUC). The Union runs most of the truck and bus parks in the country. It also enforces passenger fares.

A queuing system is enforced by the truck and bus parks. Operators are assigned to certain routes. Customers are directed to the first vehicle in the queue, which will move once the vehicle is full. Freight drivers can queue for two weeks to get a load.

There are a number of large bus companies that operate in urban and interurban routes, however virtually all rural and freight transport is run by informal small scale operators.

ghana gprtu 2
Ghana -GPRTU 2.

The union tries to assist members in various ways. Michel Delaquis’ study found that they would help long serving drivers become owners operators through advancing loans.

It is possible for freight operators to bypass the queuing system and visit factories, etc, for loads on spec. Although ‘fines’ have sometimes been imposed for doing this.

Freight Transport Tariffs are very high. A recent study found transporting an import container from Accra to Ougadougou was $4,800 compared with $654 between Newark and Chicago, (i.e. 7 times for a similar distance). An export container cost 2.5 times as much.

malawi transport costs
Malawi Transport Costs
  • A recent study by the World Bank found a 20 fold difference in transport charges between transport of tobacco between local towns and city compared with the charges for international transport to export ports.
  • The main reasons identified were a combination of infrastructure issues, and segmented markets preventing competition.
  • It was suggested that larger trucks would find it difficult to operate on rural roads, and there was likely to be higher empty running on shorter trips.
malawi transport costs for tobacco
Malawi Transport Costs for Tobacco

Explaining High Transport Costs within Malawi - Bad Roads or Lack of Trucking Competition?

Policy Research Working Paper 5133, Somik V. Lall, Hyoung Wang, Thomas Munthali– World Bank, 2009

a comparison of transport operations in cameroon

A Comparison of Transport Operations in Cameroon

The Mayor of Ngoundere District in Northern Cameroon decided to address the issue of poor transport services and high tariffs. Substantial results followed.

A comparison was made by surveys between Ngoundere and two other Districts in the South Cameroon

slide41

Second surveys

First surveys around Buea

characteristics of transport in southern cameroon
Characteristics of Transport in Southern Cameroon

Transport operations are organised by syndicates

The syndicate determines fares and routes

The drivers wait in line and only leave when they are full

The syndicate negotiates with the mayor for access and fees for the terminal

The vehicles tend to be small (taxis), overloaded and in poor condition

transport characteristics in northern cameroon
Transport Characteristics in Northern Cameroon

There are a number of travel agencies operating in competition with each other

The mayor has granted licenses for these travel agencies to operate out of individual terminals in the town

The operations are professional and regular

The vehicles are clean, well maintained and large 30 seaters

impact of these differences on the customer
Impact of these differences on the customer

In the North passenger fares dropped by 50% in 2 years as competition increased

In the North customers had a safer and more comfortable ride

Greater service frequency to rural areas

Customer/user becomes the focus

The price of transport is dramatically lower in the North than the South

cameroon study policy implications
Cameroon Study Policy Implications

Support of a more competitive environment can have a large pay off.

In these cases infrastructure was not an issue - if anything the quality of infrastructure was worse in the North.

When transport is provided as it is in the North it is possible to start thinking about introducing subsidy on remote and economically unviable routes.

slide49

Further research papers are available on the TRL transport-links website: . http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/index.asp

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