FREIGHT TRANSPORT RESEARCH IN AFRICA & ASIA. John Hine . FREIGHT TRANSPORT Research TOPICS. Modelling Vehicle Operating Costs for Road Appraisal Can t ime savings be used productively ? Speed and fuel consumption Vehicle maintenance costs
Log LOADED Trips per Day = 0.97 -0.932 LOG Working Time per TRIP (The Elasticity Suggests Time savings would be Fully USED) – Pakistan travelling observer survey
FUEL CONSUMPTION TRIP (The Elasticity Suggests Time savings would be Fully USED) – Pakistan travelling observer survey
Uses the ARFCOM model - an instantaneous model of engine power requirements which includes
Tractive power to overcome resistance to motion
Internal engine resistance
Speeds in congested traffic conditions are not constant and speed variations need to be included in the fuel consumption modelHDM4 (The Road Planning Model)The Calculation of Fuel Consumption
Estimated fuel consumption with congestion by ARFCOM/HDM4
HDMIII no congestion
ARFCOM /HDM-4 no congestion
MAINTENANCE PARTS CONSUMPTION TRIP (The Elasticity Suggests Time savings would be Fully USED) – Pakistan travelling observer survey
The most important component of road user costs
The most 'variable' and most difficult to model
Function of new vehicle price, vehicle age and road roughness
HDM-4 relationships less sensitive to roughness
Essential to calibrate
Dependent on parts consumptionHDM-4
The LPI is a set of indicators that measure perceptions of the logistics environment of 155 countries on several logistics dimensions. The survey uses an anonymous, web-based questionnaire and assess several logistics dimensions:
TRL Study on Pakistan, INRETS & LET, Francophone Africa. See: A comparison of the costs and productivity of road freight transport in Africa and Pakistan. Transport Reviews, Vol 13, No.2, Rizet & Hine, 1993
A Comparison of Freight Transport Operations in Tanzania and Indonesia,1997. TRL Report 267. J Hine, J. Ebden and P Swan)
The transition from non-motorised to motorised modes of transport. 7th World Conference on Transport Research, Sydney, 1995( S. Ellis & J. Hine).
: Transport Prices and Costs in Africa: A review of the International Corridors. By S. Teravaninthorn and G. Raballand. World bank 2009
Tariff Comparison Surface: Evidence from Ethiopia
Tariff(1988 US cents/tonne/km)
Thousand tonne km per trip
Africa Surface: Evidence from Ethiopia
Annual costs :
Licenses and taxes
INPUT COSTS (1988 US$)
FREIGHT TRANSPORT COSTS Surface: Evidence from Ethiopia
US cents per km
Police, Agents Fees
Total costs per km
Total costs per ton km
Earlier Studies Stressed:
High initial input prices for vehicles, fuel, parts
Exclusive dealerships, low demand
Poor driver knowledge of vehicle maintenance
Unnecessary fast driving speeds
Poor road surfaces
Little competition, particularly on rural routes
Low utilisation caused by low density of demand and operation of operator cartels
Later studies emphasised:
Credit: TRL Limited
FACTORS PROMOTING LOW COST TRANSPORT IN PAKISTAN - ORGANISATIONAL
About 70% of transport operators belong to the GPRTU (Ghana Private Road Transport Union of the TUC). The Union runs most of the truck and bus parks in the country. It also enforces passenger fares.
A queuing system is enforced by the truck and bus parks. Operators are assigned to certain routes. Customers are directed to the first vehicle in the queue, which will move once the vehicle is full. Freight drivers can queue for two weeks to get a load.
There are a number of large bus companies that operate in urban and interurban routes, however virtually all rural and freight transport is run by informal small scale operators.
The union tries to assist members in various ways. Michel Delaquis’ study found that they would help long serving drivers become owners operators through advancing loans.
It is possible for freight operators to bypass the queuing system and visit factories, etc, for loads on spec. Although ‘fines’ have sometimes been imposed for doing this.
Freight Transport Tariffs are very high. A recent study found transporting an import container from Accra to Ougadougou was $4,800 compared with $654 between Newark and Chicago, (i.e. 7 times for a similar distance). An export container cost 2.5 times as much.
Explaining High Transport Costs within Malawi - Bad Roads or Lack of Trucking Competition?
Policy Research Working Paper 5133, Somik V. Lall, Hyoung Wang, Thomas Munthali– World Bank, 2009
The Mayor of Ngoundere District in Northern Cameroon decided to address the issue of poor transport services and high tariffs. Substantial results followed.
A comparison was made by surveys between Ngoundere and two other Districts in the South Cameroon
Second surveys ORGANISATIONAL
First surveys around Buea
Transport operations are organised by syndicates
The syndicate determines fares and routes
The drivers wait in line and only leave when they are full
The syndicate negotiates with the mayor for access and fees for the terminal
The vehicles tend to be small (taxis), overloaded and in poor condition
There are a number of travel agencies operating in competition with each other
The mayor has granted licenses for these travel agencies to operate out of individual terminals in the town
The operations are professional and regular
The vehicles are clean, well maintained and large 30 seaters
In the North passenger fares dropped by 50% in 2 years as competition increased
In the North customers had a safer and more comfortable ride
Greater service frequency to rural areas
Customer/user becomes the focus
The price of transport is dramatically lower in the North than the South
Support of a more competitive environment can have a large pay off.
In these cases infrastructure was not an issue - if anything the quality of infrastructure was worse in the North.
When transport is provided as it is in the North it is possible to start thinking about introducing subsidy on remote and economically unviable routes.
Further research ORGANISATIONALpapers are available on the TRL transport-links website: . http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/index.asp