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Conditions of Effective Implementation: SABATIER & MAZMANIAN. Program is based on sound theory. The statute contains clear policy directives. Leaders possess substantial managerial and political skill. Program is actively supported by constituent groups.

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Conditions of Effective Implementation:SABATIER & MAZMANIAN

  • Program is based on sound theory.

  • The statute contains clear policy directives.

  • Leaders possess substantial managerial and political skill.

  • Program is actively supported by constituent groups.

  • Relative priority of statutory objectives is not undermined.


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Institutional Paradoxes: Myers and Dillon

  • Policy makers fail to align the actions of street level bureaucrats with their goals.

  • The structure of a welfare workers job or his or her understanding of the program mission create incentives for maintaining instrumental behavior and disincentives for reform.

  • The paradox: The welfare bureaucracy makes it impossible for workers to cooperate with the intent of the reform effort.


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Structural factors: rules, procedures, incentive structures

Organizing pressures: clients

Workers’ Instrumental responses: standardization/routini-zation

Inspiration/leadership lacking

Focus on process

Focus on rewarded behavior

Narrow and technical understanding of agency mission.

Organizational Factors Impeding Implementation


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Lessons from Administrative Reform in FloridaBerry et al.

  • Reformers tend to use popular writing without determining their applicability

  • Advocates tend to over-promise results for political support in campaign process

  • Under fiscal restraints, reforms w/ low implementation cost and uncertain benefits are favored over high cost/ high benefit reforms.

  • When reforms deliver less than promised, they lose support and are seen as failures

  • Sustained leadership for reform w/in an agency is critical as time extends and support erodes.


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