Chapter 5. Norms and Criteria: . According to Pythagorean tradition the circle represents the spiritual realm; the square represents material existence. So the ideal human body represents the marriage of matter and spirit, reflected in its geometric proportions. A first norm?
According to Pythagorean tradition
the circle represents the spiritual realm;
the square represents material existence.
So the ideal human body represents the marriage of matter and spirit, reflected in its geometric proportions.
A first norm?
A first criteria?
Definition - conversion from z-score into system with a “nice, arbitrarily chosen” M and SD
(see illustration of conversion process on the next slide)
Intelligence . . . The IQ Score:
In 1905 Binet had children do tasks such as follow commands, copy patterns, name objects, and put things in order. He gave the test to Paris schoolchildren and created a standard “intelligence scale” based on his data. For example, a 6-year-old child who passed all the tasks usually passed by 6-year-olds (but no tasks beyond) would have a mental age that exactly matched his chronological age, 6.0. In accordance with the commission’s charge, he reasoned that students testing below age level should be given help to achieve at levels more like their age peers.
Binet stressed that intellectual development progressed at variable rates and could be impacted by the environment (therefore not based solely on genetics). He also argued that intelligence was malleable rather than fixed and IQ testing could only be used on children with comparable backgrounds.
Along with collaborator Théodore Simon, Binet published revisions of his intelligence scale in 1908 and 1911, the last appearing just before his death.
Terman admired Binet’s work. During World War I, Terman served in the United States army conducting psychological tests. He and his students developed the Alpha and Beta tests which were used to allocate soldiers into the most appropriate areas of military service.
Terman also adopted William Stern's suggestions to multiply the mental age / chronological age ratio times 100 (to get rid of the decimal) and call the score be called an intelligence quotient or IQ. Today we usually refer to this approach to intelligence as the ratio IQ.
In keeping with his army experiences, when Terman moved to testing classroom children, he proposed using his “Stanford-Binet IQ Test” to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track. Terman believed IQ was inherited and was the strongest predictor of one's ultimate success in life. By the way, Terman “claimed” that he himself had an IQ of 180 . . .
“High-grade or border-line deficiency . . . is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come . . . . Children of this group should be segregated into separate classes . . . . They cannot master abstractions but they can often be made into efficient workers . . . from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding.”
(The Measurement of Intelligence, 1916, p. 91-92).
Use of the Stanford-Binet scale in American schools would (according to Chapter I of the test manual itself) “allow for the scientific diagnosis and classification of children to be placed in special classes; bring tens of thousands of high-grade defectives under the surveillance and protection of society; reduce delinquency; help the schools respond to children of superior intelligence; assist in assigning children to school grades; and help determine vocational fitness . . . .” (White, 2000)
A table related to the deviation IQ is on the next slide. What do you notice?
Wechsler, D. (1944). The Measurement of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company.
Reber, A.S. (1995). The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd ed. Toronto: Penguin Books.
I.Q. Basics– I.Q. Comparison Site
Lev Vygotsky graduated with a law degree at Moscow University. After graduation, he taught literature in secondary school and psychology at a teacher’s college. While Vygotsky had no formal training in psychology, ideas related to developmental psychology fascinated him.
Vygotsky’s thoughts were influenced by Marxist theorists. Marxists believe that one can only understand individuals in the context of their social-historical environment. Similarly, mental abilities and processes were viewed in terms of the historical sequence of events that produced them.
Upon his death from tuberculosis, his ideas were repudiated by the Soviet government. They banned his work because he did some research with intelligence tests (intelligence tests were condemned by the Communist Party). Vygotsky was actually criticizing the tests when he was using them in his research, but this point was lost on the government officials. When the Cold War ended, Vygotsky's works were opened to the West.
Rather than seeing intelligence as much the same across cultures, Vygotsky saw intellectual abilities as being much more specific to the culture (think “family, community, nation”) in which the child was reared (Vasta,R., Haith, M.M., Miller,S.A., 1995). Culture makes two sorts of contributions to the child’s intellectual development. First, children acquire much of their thinking (e.g., knowledge) from it. Second, children acquire the processes or means of their thinking (e.g., tools of intellectual adaptation) from the surrounding culture. Therefore, culture provides the child with the means to decide both “what” to think and “how” to think.
Vygotsky elaborates this “culture as intelligence” idea as follows: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, between people (inter-psychological) and then inside the child (intra-psychological). All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.” (Vygotsky, 1978)
One might conclude, the “richer” the personal interactions, then the “richer” the mind of the person. We will come back to this idea later, for now let us look at more examples of standard scores.
Stanines facilitate using words rather than numbers in presenting statistical data. Most people like words, but this practice is arbitrary and less accurate: “Bill tested considerably below average."
Example: National vs. Local NormsSally’s score (the x below) is at the 55th percentile when compared to National tests takers, but her score is at the 45th percentile compared to Local test takers
If we accept Vygotsky’s view of intellectual development, we might conclude that it is, in fact, learning that leads to intellectual development (as opposed to the other way around).
In Vygotsky’s view, the standard IQ test only indicates what a child can achieve on his/her own. He calls this the ‘level of actual development.’ While such a measure is undoubtedly important, it is also incomplete. Given appropriate help from an adult, children can increase their thinking ability. What the child can achieve with this outside help is referred to as the ‘level of potential development.’ (Vasta, R., Haith, M.M., Miller, S.A., 1995)
As educators, are we not interested in increasing this potential rather than labelling and sorting children based on IQ scores?