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The Early Stages. 11-2. 1 st Battle of Bull Run. North wants to quickly attack South CSA has troops ( PGT Beauregard ) at Manassas Junction Lincoln sends troops to attack ( Irving McDowell ). 1 st Battle of Bull Run. Initially, Union troops are winning.

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1 st battle of bull run
1st Battle of Bull Run
  • North wants to quickly attack South
  • CSA has troops (PGT Beauregard) at Manassas Junction
  • Lincoln sends troops to attack (Irving McDowell)
1 st battle of bull run1
1st Battle of Bull Run
  • Initially, Union troops are winning.
  • As some Confederate troops retreat, others under Thomas Jackson hold.
  • Inspires other Conf. soldiers- (“There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally around the Virginians.”)
1 st battle of bull run2
1st Battle of Bull Run
  • Conf. counterattack and force Union to retreat
  • As union troops fall back, they become mixed with civilians from D.C. that had come to watch the battle
  • Union retreat is a total panic
  • Both sides realize it will be a long war
the blockade
The Blockade
  • Was increasingly effective as the war progressed
  • Conf used blockade runners to slip through and get supplies
  • Conf also used commerce raiders- functioned out of foreign ports and attacked Union Shipping
the blockade1
The Blockade
  • Most famous commerce raider was CSS Alabama
  • Captain was Raphael Semmes
  • Destroyed many Union ships
  • Finally sunk by USS Kearsarge off the coast of France
new orleans
New Orleans
  • Union wanted to capture the lower Mississippi
  • Sent Union warships (David Farragut) into the mouth of the Mississippi River
  • Steamed up river, captured New Orleans on April 25, 1862
hampton roads
Hampton Roads
  • March 8&9, 1862
  • Hampton Roads, VA.
  • New confederate ship comes out of port to break the blockade- CSS Virginia (Merrimack)
hampton roads1
Hampton Roads
  • Virginiais an ironclad- has iron plates on its sides
  • Day one- sinks 2 Union ships
  • Day two, Virginia is met by a Union ironclad- USS Monitor
  • Battle all day to a draw
hampton roads2
Hampton Roads
  • First battle between iron warships
ft henry ft donelson
Ft Henry & Ft Donelson
  • Union troops (Ulysses Grant) want to capture the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers
  • Capture Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson- Gives US control of all KY & western TN
  • Grant heads up the Tennessee to attack Corinth, MS, and important rail line
  • April 6, 1862- Conf. attack Grant’s troops, pushing them back to the river
  • Grant’s commanders advise him to retreat
  • Grants refuses
  • Grant gets reinforcements and attacks the next day
  • Conf have to retreat
  • casualties: Union 13,000; Conf. 11,000
  • Most costly battle in US History, at that time
peninsular campaign
Peninsular Campaign
  • Happening the same time as the struggle for Tennessee & Mississippi River
  • Lincoln sent Union Army of the Potomac (George McClellan) to capture Richmond
  • Transports army by boat and lands on peninsula south of Richmond
peninsular campaign1
Peninsular Campaign
  • McClellan was cautious and slow
  • Gave Conf time to get reinforcements and dig in
  • Fight a series of small battles as Union moves toward Richmond
  • Conf general Joseph Johnston injured
  • New general is Robert E. Lee
peninsular campaign2
Peninsular Campaign
  • Lee attacked McClellan
  • Union forced to retreat
  • Called Seven Days’ Battle
  • Lincoln orders troops to return to Washington
2 nd battle of bull run
2nd Battle of Bull Run
  • As McClellan prepares to return to Washington, Lee attacks Washington
  • Union troops (John Pope) come out to face Conf
  • Conf win again, force Pope to retreat
  • After 2nd Bull Run, Lee invades North
  • Lee wants to :
    • Win European support
    • Turn Northern public opinion against the war
    • Feed off the crops of Northern farmers
  • Lee entered Maryland and waited on McClelland near Sharpsburg, MD (near Antietam Creek) (McClelland knew his plan)
  • Union attacked on Sept 17, 1862
  • Bloodiest single day in US history
  • 26,000 casualties (killed, wounded, missing)
  • Lee withdrew to VA
  • Crucial victory for Union
  • GB wanted to recognize CSA and give them military aid
  • After Antietam, GB decides to wait and see
emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Antietam convinces Lincoln it is time to end slavery
  • Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in states at war with the US

- Changed the Northern war goal from preserving the Union to freeing slaves