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Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology. What is the code and how is it harnessed?. Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Learning Objectives. Describe what DNA is and what it does.

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Chapter 5 dna gene expression and biotechnology

Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology

What is the code and how is it harnessed?

Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Describe what DNA is and what it does.

  • Explain the process of gene expression and the collaboration of nature and nurture.

  • Explain the causes and effects of damage to the genetic code.

  • Describe biotechnology and its implications for human health.

  • Discuss biotechnology in agriculture.

  • Discuss biotechnology today and tomorrow.


Aim how is dna structured

AIM:How is DNA structured?

Do Now:

Where is DNA found and why is it important?


5 1 the dna 200

5.1 “The DNA 200”

Knowledge about DNA is increasing justice in the world.



Dna is unique for each individual
DNA is unique for each individual. incorrect criminal convictions?


Selfish dictators may owe their behaviour partly to their genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness.

–Nature, April 2008

Whether a man has one type of gene versus another could help decide whether he’s good “husband material,” a new study suggests.

–Washington Post, September 2008


The age of the gene
The “Age of the Gene” genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness


Take home message 5 1
Take-home message 5.1 genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness

  • DNA is a molecule that all living organisms carry in every cell in their body.


Take home message 5 11
Take-home message 5.1 genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness

  • Unique in virtually every person, DNA can serve as an individual identifier, left behind us as we go about our lives.

  • This is a fact that is used increasingly to ensure greater justice in our society, such as through establishing the innocence of individuals wrongly convicted of crimes.


5.2 The DNA molecule contains instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms.


Two important features of dna
Two Important Features of DNA development and functioning of all living organisms.

(1) DNA contains the instructions on how to create a body and control its growth and development.

(2) The instructions encoded in the DNA molecule are passed down from parent to offspring. (Where have we recently seen this concept?)


Dna double helix

DNA “Double Helix” development and functioning of all living organisms.

Nucleic acids and nucleotides


Sugars phosphates and bases
Sugars, Phosphates, development and functioning of all living organisms.and Bases

A, T, C, and G

Base pairs

AllTeachersGoCrazy


Which answer will base pair with the following sequence agttctcatgt
Which answer will base pair with the following sequence? development and functioning of all living organisms.AGTTCTCATGT

AGTTCTCATGT

ACATGAGAACT

TCAAGAGTACA

UCAAGAGUACA


How does dna replicate why is this an important process
How does DNA replicate? development and functioning of all living organisms.Why is this an important process?

DNA replication

  • DNA original strand “unzips” by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complimentary base pairs.

  • New free floating nucleotides form new hydrogen bonds with the appropriate base pair with the help of DNA polymerase.

  • Two new identical of DNA molecules result, each with one strand of the original DNA as one side of the sugar-phospahate backbone.


Take home message 5 2
Take-home message 5.2 development and functioning of all living organisms.

  • DNA is a nucleic acid, a macromolecule that stores information.

  • It consists of individual units called nucleotides: a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.


Take home message 5 21
Take-home message 5.2 development and functioning of all living organisms.

  • DNA’s structure resembles a twisted ladder, with the sugar and phosphate groups serving as the backbones of the molecule and base pairs serving as the rungs.


Activity
ACTIVITY development and functioning of all living organisms.

Make your own DNA model.


Exit slip
EXIT SLIP development and functioning of all living organisms.

Answer the AIM

How is DNA structured?


5 3 genes are sections of dna that contain instructions for making proteins

5.3 Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins.

Why is DNA considered the universal code for all life on earth?


The number of chromosomes varies from species to species
The number of chromosomes varies from species to species. making proteins.

  • Corn has 10 unique chromosomes.

  • Fruit flies have only four.

  • Dogs and chickens have 39 different chromosomes.

  • Goldfish have 47 chromosomes.

  • Individuals in each of these species inherit one copy of each chromosome from each parent.


Genes
Genes making proteins.

  • A sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a protein molecule or RNA


Different people can have free or attached earlobes. The DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

allele; genes

trait; alleles

gene; trait

gene; alleles


Take home message 5 3
Take-home message 5.3 DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

  • DNA is a universal language that provides the instructions for building all the structures of all living organisms.

  • The full set of DNA an organism carries is called its genome.


Take home message 5 31
Take-home message 5.3 DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

  • In prokaryotes, the DNA occurs in circular pieces.

  • In eukaryotes, the genome is divided among smaller, linear strands of DNA called chromosomes.


Take home message 5 32
Take-home message 5.3 DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

  • A gene is a sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a protein molecule or RNA.


Take home message 5 4
Take-home message 5.4 DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

  • Only a small fraction of the DNA in eukaryotic species codes for genes.

  • The function of the rest is still a mystery.


5 5 how do genes work

5.5 How do genes work? DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

An overview


  • Genotype DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.

    • all of the genes contained in an organism

  • Phenotype

    • the physical manifestations of the instructions


Which molecule acts as a “middle man” between the nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?

DNA

mRNA

Protein

Choices 1 and 3 are correct.


Take home message 5 5
Take-home message 5.5 nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?

  • The genes in strands of DNA are a storehouse of information, an instruction book.


Take home message 5 51
Take-home message 5.5 nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?

The process by which this information is used to build an organism occurs in two main steps:

  • transcription, in which a copy of the a gene’s base sequence is made, and

  • translation, in which that copy is used to direct the production of a protein.


5 6 transcription reading the information coded in dna
5.6 Transcription: reading the information coded in DNA nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?


Classroom catalyst

Classroom Catalyst nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?

Transcription Activity


Which answer shows the correct orientation of the mRNA sequence (Phosphate (5’)  Oxygen (3’)) given the DNA sequence below?5’-TCATCTATCT-3’

5’-UCAUCUAUCU-3’

5’-AGUAGAUAGA-3’

5’-AGAUAGAUGA-3’

5’-AGATAGATGA-3’


Take home message 5 6
Take-home message 5.6 sequence (Phosphate (5’)

  • Transcription is the first step in the two-step process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.

  • In transcription, a single copy of one specific gene within the DNA is made, in the form of a molecule of mRNA, which moves where it can be translated into a protein.


Aim how are protein synthesized

AIM: sequence (Phosphate (5’) How are protein synthesized?

Do Now:

What determines the function of an enzyme?



Several ingredients must be present in the cytoplasm for translation to occur
Several ingredients must be present in the cytoplasm for translation to occur.

  • Free amino acids

  • Ribosomal units

  • Transfer RNA


Classroom catalyst1

Classroom Catalyst translation to occur.

Translation Activity


Translate the following mrna 5 cgagcaugggcuuuagg
Translate the following mRNA: translation to occur. 5’-CGAGCAUGGGCUUUAGG...

MET-GLY-PHE-ARG…

ARG-ALA-TRP-ALA-LEU…

GLY-PHE-ARG-VAL-ARG…

ARG-PHE-GLY-MET-SER…


Take home message 5 7
Take-home message 5.7 translation to occur.

  • Translation is the second step in the two-step process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.

  • In translation, the information from a gene that has been carried by the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is read, and ingredients present in the cell’s cytoplasm are used to produce a protein.


5 8 causes and effects of mutation
5.8 Causes and effects of mutation translation to occur.

  • Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA

    • can lead to changes in the structure and function of the proteins produced

    • can have a range of effects


Breast cancer in humans
Breast Cancer in Humans translation to occur.

  • Two human genes, called BRCA1 and BRCA2

  • More than 200 different changes in the DNA sequences of these genes have been detected,

  • each of which results in an increased risk of developing breast cancer.


Mutations
Mutations translation to occur.

  • Bad reputation

  • Tend to be disruptive

  • Very, very rare


Which answer shows the mrna transcribed from the dna sequence below 5 tta tcc ttt act cat 3
Which answer shows the mRNA transcribed from the DNA sequence below?5’-TTA TCC TTT ACT CAT-3’

5’-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3’

5’-AAU-AGG-AAA-UGA-GUA-3’

5’- TTA-TCC-TTT-ACT-CAT-3’

5’-UUA-AGG-AAA-TGA-GUA-3’


Which of the following changes (base substitutions and insertions are underlined and in bold) would have the most severe effect on the protein made from the mRNA in the last question?5’-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3’

AUG-AGU-AAG-GGA-UAA

AUG-AGU-AAA-GGA-UAG

AUG-GUA-AAG-GAU-AA

AUG-AGU-AAA-GGA-GUA-A



Take home message 5 8
Take-home message 5.8 plant?

  • Mutations are alterations in a single base or changes in large segments of DNA that include several genes.

  • They are rare and when they occur in a gene usually disrupt normal physiological functioning.

  • They play an important role in evolution.


From mutation to illness in just four steps
From mutation to illness in just four steps: plant?

(1) A mutated gene codes for a non-functioning protein, usually an enzyme.

(2) The non-functioning enzyme can’t catalyze the reaction as it normally would, bringing it to a halt.


From mutation to illness in just four steps1
From mutation to illness in just four steps: plant?

(3) The molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates, like a blocked assembly line.

(4) The accumulating chemical causes sickness and/or death.


Why can one change in a nucleotide sequence of a gene cause a nonfunctional protein to be produced
Why can one change in a nucleotide sequence of a gene cause a nonfunctional protein to be produced?

The change can cause a stop codon to occur early in translation and the full length protein is not translated.

A substitution can result in one incorrect amino acid being present in the protein which can affect the shape of the protein and therefore its function.

An insertion or deletion can occur early in the gene and result in an incorrect translation of the protein.

All of the above.


Take home message 5 9
Take-home message 5.9 a nonfunctional protein to be produced?

  • Most genetic diseases result from individual mutations that cause a gene to produce a non-functioning enzyme, which in turn blocks the functioning of a metabolic pathway.


Genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering a nonfunctional protein to be produced?

5.10 What is biotechnology?

  • Adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another, to alter the organisms in useful ways


Biotech advances in human health fall into three categories
Biotech advances in human health fall into three categories:

(1) producing medicines to treat diseases

(2) curing diseases

(3) preventing diseases from occurring in the first place.


If you were trying to identify the gene for insulin, which particular step of the procedure outlined below would you use?

Cut human DNA into small pieces with a restriction enzyme.

Amplify the DNA pieces with PCR.

Insert the gene into a plasmid and insert into bacteria.

Probe a gene library.


Take home message 5 10
Take-home message 5.10 particular step of the procedure outlined below would you use?

  • Biotechnology is the use of technology to modify organisms, cells, and their molecules to achieve practical benefits.


Take home message 5 101
Take-home message 5.10 particular step of the procedure outlined below would you use?

  • Modern molecular methods make it possible to cut and copy DNA from one organism and deliver it to another.

  • Biotechnology has achieved some important successes in medicine, agriculture, and forensics.


5 11 treating diseases and producing medicines with biotechnology
5.11 Treating diseases and producing medicines with biotechnology

  • cure diseases

  • treating diseases

    • The treatment of diabetes


Why do some bacteria produce human insulin

Why do some bacteria produce human insulin? biotechnology

Recombinant DNA technology


Several important achievements followed the development of insulin producing bacteria including
Several important achievements followed the development of insulin-producing bacteria, including:

Human growth hormone (HGH)

Erythropoietin


Take home message 5 111
Take-home message 5.11 insulin-producing bacteria, including:

  • Biotechnology has led to some notable successes in treating diseases, usually by producing medicines more efficiently and more effectively than they can be produced with traditional methods.


5 12 curing diseases with biotechnology

5.12 Curing diseases with biotechnology insulin-producing bacteria, including:

Gene therapy and the correction of malfunctioning genes


Stem cells
Stem Cells insulin-producing bacteria, including:

  • Cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body



Gene therapy difficulties
Gene Therapy Difficulties curing diseases?

(1) Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed.


Gene therapy difficulties1
Gene Therapy Difficulties curing diseases?

(2) Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect.

(3) Problems with the transfer organism getting into unintended cells.


Take home message 5 12
Take-home message 5.12 curing diseases?

  • Gene therapy has had a poor record of success in curing human diseases.

  • This stems primarily from technical difficulties in transferring normal-functioning genes into the cells of a person with a genetic disease.


5 13 preventing diseases with biotechnology

5.13 Preventing diseases with biotechnology curing diseases?

Intervening to prevent diseases using biotechnology focuses on answering questions at three different points in time:


I would want to know if my genome or that of a loved one carries one or more copies of a gene that can cause a genetic disease.

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree



2 will a baby be born with a genetic disease
(2) Will a baby be born with a genetic disease? a genetic disease?

  • cystic fibrosis

  • sickle-cell anemia

  • Down syndrome

  • others


3 is an individual likely to develop a genetic disease later in life
(3) Is an individual likely to develop a genetic disease later in life?

  • breast cancer

  • prostate cancer

  • skin cancer


Ethical dilemmas
Ethical Dilemmas later in life?

  • Discrimination

  • Health insurance

  • How to proceed with the information?


Take home message 5 13
Take-home message 5.13 later in life?

  • Biotechnology allows us to identify:

    • whether a given set of parents is likely to produce a baby with a genetic disease,

    • whether a baby is likely to be born with a genetic disease,

    • and whether an individual carriers certain disease-causing genes that may have their effect later in life.


Take home message 5 131
Take-home message 5.13 later in life?

  • These tools can help us to reduce suffering and the incidence of diseases, but they also come with significant potential costs, particularly the risk of discrimination.



How might a genetically modified plant help 500 million malnourished people

How might a genetically modified plant help 500 million malnourished people?

Nutrient-rich “golden rice”


Take home message 5 14
Take-home message 5.14 malnourished people?

  • Biotechnology has led to important improvements in agriculture by using transgenic plants and animals to produce more nutritious food.


5 15 more efficient and eco friendly farming with biotechnology
5.15 More efficient and eco-friendly farming with biotechnology

And he gave it for his opinion, ‘that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together.’

—Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, 1726


Almost everyone in the u s consumes genetically modified foods regularly without knowing it

Almost everyone in the U.S. consumes genetically modified foods regularly without knowing it.

What foods are responsible for this?


Insect resistance
Insect Resistance foods regularly without knowing it.



Herbicide resistance
Herbicide Resistance pesticide use by farmers?


Faster growth and bigger bodies
Faster Growth and Bigger Bodies pesticide use by farmers?


Take home message 5 15
Take-home message 5.15 pesticide use by farmers?

  • There has been a revolution through biotechnology.

  • Herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops help reduce the environmental and financial costs of producing food.





Which food below does not potentially contain gmos
Which food below does not potentially contain GMOs? invincible.

Nacho chips

Fruit juice

Corn flakes

Rice

All of the above.


Take home message 5 16
Take-home message 5.16 invincible.

  • More and more genetically modified foods are being created using modern methods of recombinant DNA technology.

  • Some legitimate fears among the public remain, however, as to the safety of these foods given that their development relies on such new technology.



What is a dna fingerprint
What is a DNA fingerprint? of DNA fingerprinting


Using the dna fingerprint information below determine which suspect was present at the crime scene
Using the DNA fingerprint information below, determine which suspect was present at the crime scene?

Suspect #1

Suspect #2

Suspect #3

All of the above.

Crime

Scene

Suspect

#1

Suspect

#2

Suspect

#3


Take home message 5 17
Take-home message 5.17 suspect was present at the crime scene?

  • Comparisons of highly variable DNA regions have forensic value in identifying tissue specimens and determining the individual from whom they came.


5 18 dna sequences reveal evolutionary relatedness
5.18 DNA sequences reveal evolutionary relatedness suspect was present at the crime scene?


1 mapping genetic landscapes the human genome project
(1) suspect was present at the crime scene?Mapping Genetic Landscapes:TheHuman Genome Project


2 building earth s family tree
(2) Building Earth’s Family Tree suspect was present at the crime scene?



Take home message 5 18
Take-home message 5.18 what do we mean?

  • Comparisons of sequence similarities across species reveal the evolutionary relatedness and make it possible to construct detailed evolutionary trees.


5 19 the promise and perils of cloning

5.19 The promise and perils of cloning what do we mean?

From organs to individuals




Take home message 5 19
Take-home message 5.19 what do we mean?

  • Cloning of individuals has potential benefits in agriculture and medicine, but ethical questions linger.


We should pursue cloning in animals but not humans
We should pursue cloning in animals but not humans. what do we mean?

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree


We should pursue cloning in humans for the purpose of developing or performing medical treatments
We should pursue cloning in humans for the purpose of developing or performing medical treatments.

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree


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