Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology. What is the code and how is it harnessed?. Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Learning Objectives. Describe what DNA is and what it does.
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Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology
What is the code and how is it harnessed?
Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
AIM:How is DNA structured?
Where is DNA found and why is it important?
5.1 “The DNA 200”
Knowledge about DNA is increasing justice in the world.
Selfish dictators may owe their behaviour partly to their genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness.
–Nature, April 2008
Whether a man has one type of gene versus another could help decide whether he’s good “husband material,” a new study suggests.
–Washington Post, September 2008
5.2 The DNA molecule contains instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms.
(1) DNA contains the instructions on how to create a body and control its growth and development.
(2) The instructions encoded in the DNA molecule are passed down from parent to offspring. (Where have we recently seen this concept?)
DNA “Double Helix”
Nucleic acids and nucleotides
A, T, C, and G
Make your own DNA model.
Answer the AIM
How is DNA structured?
5.3 Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins.
Why is DNA considered the universal code for all life on earth?
Different people can have free or attached earlobes. The DNA that encodes for making free or attached earlobes is called a(n) ________, and there are two different versions of it, called __________.
5.5 How do genes work?
Choices 1 and 3 are correct.
The process by which this information is used to build an organism occurs in two main steps:
Which answer shows the correct orientation of the mRNA sequence (Phosphate (5’) Oxygen (3’)) given the DNA sequence below?5’-TCATCTATCT-3’
AIM:How are protein synthesized?
What determines the function of an enzyme?
5’-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3’
Which of the following changes (base substitutions and insertions are underlined and in bold) would have the most severe effect on the protein made from the mRNA in the last question?5’-AUG AGU AAA GGA UAA-3’
Why is it dangerous around the core of a nuclear power plant?
(1) A mutated gene codes for a non-functioning protein, usually an enzyme.
(2) The non-functioning enzyme can’t catalyze the reaction as it normally would, bringing it to a halt.
(3) The molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates, like a blocked assembly line.
(4) The accumulating chemical causes sickness and/or death.
The change can cause a stop codon to occur early in translation and the full length protein is not translated.
A substitution can result in one incorrect amino acid being present in the protein which can affect the shape of the protein and therefore its function.
An insertion or deletion can occur early in the gene and result in an incorrect translation of the protein.
All of the above.
5.10 What is biotechnology?
(1) producing medicines to treat diseases
(2) curing diseases
(3) preventing diseases from occurring in the first place.
Cut human DNA into small pieces with a restriction enzyme.
Amplify the DNA pieces with PCR.
Insert the gene into a plasmid and insert into bacteria.
Probe a gene library.
Why do some bacteria produce human insulin?
Recombinant DNA technology
Human growth hormone (HGH)
5.12 Curing diseases with biotechnology
Gene therapy and the correction of malfunctioning genes
Why has gene therapy had such a poor record of success in curing diseases?
(1) Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed.
(2) Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect.
(3) Problems with the transfer organism getting into unintended cells.
5.13 Preventing diseases with biotechnology
Intervening to prevent diseases using biotechnology focuses on answering questions at three different points in time:
5.14 Producing more nutritious and better food with biotechnology
How might a genetically modified plant help 500 million malnourished people?
Nutrient-rich “golden rice”
And he gave it for his opinion, ‘that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together.’
—Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, 1726
Almost everyone in the U.S. consumes genetically modified foods regularly without knowing it.
What foods are responsible for this?
All of the above.
All of the above.
5.19 The promise and perils of cloning
From organs to individuals