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Simula Programming Language. Lenar Uri T. Barcelona. It all started with a need…. Kristen Nygaard realized, through his work in the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, that there is a need for simulation tools. It all started with a need….

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Simula Programming Language

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Simula Programming Language

Lenar Uri T. Barcelona

It all started with a need…

  • Kristen Nygaard realized, through his work in the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, that there is a need for simulation tools

It all started with a need…

  • Nygaard left NDRE and put up NCC (Norwegian Computing Center) where, similar to his previous job, he realized that there is a need for simulation tools

Summer 1961-Fall 1962

The concept of a mathematical discrete event network and programming language reasoning for Simula I were developed by Nygaard and Dahl

Fall 1962-September 1963

It was decided that Simula I would be implemented as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to Algol 60

History of Simula

September 1963 - March 1964

A new storage management scheme

Simula I would be implemented through a modification and extension of Univac's Algol 60 compiler

March 1964-December 1964

The first prototype was completed in December

Minor language modifications were made

Extensions based on implementation experience and programming test cases were completed

History of Simula

Fall of 1965

The Technical University of Norway wanted to implement a new Algol 60 compiler on the Univac 1100 series

Nygaard and Dahl determined that attribute accessing and common properties of processes were the most significant problems in Simula I

December 1966


Today, prefixing is known as inheritance

Class Concept

Prefixing can be extended to include multiple prefixing thus establishing hierarchies of process classes

This led to the idea of objects

History of Simula



instance variables





supports method combination

"Virtual" methods

methods that can be redefined in derived classes


run-time class (type) tests


"Protected" which means that they are accessible for subclasses

"Hidden" in which case that are not accessible to subclasses either

Features of Simula

Extensions/Modifications of Algol 60

  • Added:

    • Class concepts and reference-variables (pointers to objects)

    • Pass-by-reference

    • Char, Text, and I/O

    • Co-routines

  • Removed:

    • Changed default parameter passing mechanism from call-by-name to pass-by-value

    • Pass-by-result

    • Some variable initialization requirements

    • String type (in favor of "text" type)

Language features:

Limited file access facilities

Missing data types (records, sets)

No real time support

No GUI support

Long executable files for short programs

OOP features:

No multiple inheritance

No interfaces


No automatic collection of statistics

No report generator

No specialized facilities

Problems with Simula

Implicit conversion is performed, where necessary, each time a term-operator-term triple is evaluated

General Rules

If the operator is integer divide, //, both terms must be integer or short integer; use of reals or long reals constitutes a runtime error

Implicit Conversion

All short integer values are converted to integer; this can never cause a conversion error

If the operator is real divide, /, both terms are converted to real or long real, in accordance with (4)

Where the terms are of different types and at least one is real or long real conversion is performed; if one term is long real the other is converted to long real otherwise the non-real term is converted to real

Implicit Conversion

Operators in Simula

Relational Operators in Simula

Simple Types in Simula

Syntax Rules - Blocks

begin     comment Our first SIMULA program;     integer Count;     count := 3;     OutInt(Count,4);     OutImage end

Syntax Rules - Declarations

procedure PrintTimes(T1, count); text T1; integer count;begin   integer i;   i := 0;   while i < count do   begin      OutText(T1);      OutImage;   end;end;

Syntax Rules - Declarations

class HelloWorld;begin   text outPut;   outPut :- "Hello World";   procedure sayHello;   begin      OutText(outPut);   end;end;

Syntax Rules - Recursion

begin   procedure factorial(m); integer m;   begin      if m > 0 then      begin         factorial := m * factorial(m-1);      end;      else         factorial := 1;   end;   OutInt(factorial(5),4);end

Syntax Rules – if then else

integer count, countAgain;

count := 2;

countAgain := 3;

if count = 2 then   begin      if countAgain = 3 then         OutText("I will be printed");   end;

Syntax Rules - while

integer count;

count := 0;

while count < 10 do   begin      OutInt(count, 4);      OutImage;      count := count + 1;   end;

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